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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease and Associated Risk Factors, United States 1999-2004

PRESS CONTACT: CDC - National Center for Health Statistics
(301) 458-4800


Chronic kidney disease is common – nearly 17 percent of adults in the U.S. have the disease, according to 1999-2004 data. This represents a 16 percent increase from 1988- 1994. People with diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and those over the age of 60 were most likely to have chronic kidney disease. An estimated 17 percent adults have chronic kidney disease or CKD, according to 1999-2004 data. This represents a 16 percent increase from 1988-1994 estimates. This information comes from national health surveys conducted by the CDC. CKD is most common in people with diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and obesity, as well as persons ages 60 years of age or older and those with less than high school education. Additionally, African-Americans and Mexican Americans were more likely to have CKD compared to whites. The CDC is working to create a chronic kidney disease surveillance system, and CDC-sponsored research is underway to better understand the effects of CKD, including its health consequences, costs, and associated disability.

Escherichia Coli 0157:H7 Infection Associated with Drinking Unpasteurized Milk, Washington and Oregon December 2005

PRESS CONTACT: CDC - Division of Media Relations
(404) 639-3286


Consumption of raw milk can lead to E. coli 0157:H7 and other serious infections. From November 29 to December 13, 2005, there were eighteen cases of E. coli 0157: H7 associated with raw milk consumption among share-holders in a cow-share program in a southwest Washington County. Five patients, 1 to 13 years old, were hospitalized and four experienced hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The farm involved in the outbreak was not licensed by the state’s cow-share program. E. coli 0157:H7 causes an estimated 73,000 illnesses and 61 deaths annually in the United States. Raw milk is an important vehicle of transmission of E. coli 0157:H7 and other pathogens. To prevent E. coli 0157:H7 and other infections, the CDC recommends that consumers should not drink raw milk.

Hospitalization Related to Traumatic Brain Injury, Nine States 2003

PRESS CONTACT: CDC - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
(770) 488-4902


To reduce the burden of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), in the United States, prevention measures should focus on the leading causes of TBI—motor vehicle-traffic incidents and falls. Information about the occurrence of TBI and associated risk factors can help states and communities develop effective prevention programs to reduce TBI. In 2003, and estimated 28, 819 persons were hospitalized with a TBI-related diagnosis in the nine reporting states. The rates were higher among males for all ages groups combined and persons 75 and older had the highest age-specific rated. The two leading causes associated with TBI-related hospitalizations were unintentional motor-vehicle-traffic incidents and falls. The findings underscore the need for states to continue monitoring the occurrence, external causes, and risk factors for TBI. Helping to identify these risks can aid in designing and implementing effective injury prevention measures to address motor vehicle-traffic incidents and falls to keep people health throughout their lives.

Bloodstream Infections among Patients Treated with Intravenous Epoprostenol or Intravenous Treprostinil for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Seven Sites, United States 2003-2006

PRESS CONTACT: CDC - Division of Media Relations
(404) 639-3286


This investigation found an increased risk of blood stream infections among patients receiving intravenous Remodulin. Patients with pulmonary hypertension and their healthcare providers should be aware of these findings when considering the risks and benefits of the two available medications. CDC conducted an investigation of blood stream infection among patient receiving the drug called Remodulin compared to the drug called Flolan. In particular the difference appeared larger for infections caused by gram-negative bacteria, which can be hard to treat and can cause serious morbidity. There are several potential explanations for the difference in rates observed at these centers including differences in, 1) preparation and storage of the two agents, 2) in catheter care practices, 3) or in the anti-inflammatory activity of the agents. Further investigation is needed to determine the causes of the different infection rates at centers where this was observed and to determine whether such a difference exists in other treatment centers.

Ralstonia Species Contamination Associated with Vapotherm 2000i Respiratory Gas Humidifier Systems, United States, 2005-2006

PRESS CONTACT: CDC - Division of Media Relations
(404) 639-3286


The Vapotherm 2000i has been reintroduced for use in hospitals. After reviewing evidence of corrective actions, The Food and Drug Administration has allowed the Vapotherm 2000i, a respiratory gas humidifier implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Ralstonia mannitolilytica and subsequently recalled, to be reintroduced for use in U.S. hospitals.

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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

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