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The MMWR is embargoed until Thursday, 12 PM EDT.
Synopsis for June 25, 2004
Voluntary HIV Testing as Part of Routine Medical Care — Massachusetts, 2002
Findings from a study released today show that routine, voluntary HIV
counseling, testing and referral (HIV CTR) programs can identify HIV-infected
patients and effectively link them to care.
“Think HIV,” an HIV CTR program implemented in four hospital
urgent care centers in Massachusetts, tested over 3,000 patients during
2002 and found 60 to be HIV-infected. Of the 60 positive patients, 49 returned
for their results and were referred for further prevention and care services.
Of the first 42 patients for whom linkage-to-care data were available,
all had at least one follow-up visit for HIV care. This 100 percent first
appointment show-rate is much higher than the 34 percent rate seen in another
urgent care routine testing program in Atlanta. Study authors note that
the success of “Think HIV” is due, in part, to on-site, designated
intake nurses from HIV outpatient clinics who ensured that newly identified
HIV-infected patients had immediate communication with a member of their
future health care team. Expanding voluntary, routine HIV testing is a
main component of CDC’s strategy to reduce new HIV infections in
the United States.
Cancer Survivorship — United States, 1971-2001
There are nearly 10 million cancer survivors in the United States and
that number is expected to increase as the population ages and cancer detection
and treatment improve.
The number of living persons who have ever received a diagnosis of cancer has risen steadily over the past three decades. It is estimated there are 9.8 million cancer survivors in the United States, representing approximately 3.5 percent of the population. Current figures indicate that for adults diagnosed with cancer today, 64 percent can expect to live at least five years. Between 1974 and 1976, only 50 percent of those diagnosed survived five or more years.
Increasingly, public attention and research are being focused on understanding
the physical, psychosocial, and economic impacts of surviving cancer. As
the United States population ages and as advances in cancer detection,
treatment, and care are integrated into clinical practice, the number of
cancer survivors is expected to increase. Two recent reports that address
the issues of greatest importance to this population have been released – A
National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship and the President’s
Cancer Panel’s Living Beyond Cancer: Finding a New Balance.
Racial/Ethnic Trends in Fetal Mortality — United States, 1990-2000
Fetal deaths are part of a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes and
should be recognized as an important public health problem. Improved fetal
death reporting, population-based surveillance, and research is needed
to prevent fetal deaths and reduce racial disparities.
This report examines recent trends in United States fetal mortality by
age, plurality, race, and ethnicity for 1990 and 2000. Findings indicate
there are nearly as many fetal deaths at 20 or greater weeks gestation
in the United States as there are infant deaths less than 1 year of age.
From 1990 to 2000, there was a 12 percent reduction in fetal mortality
rates due to reductions in late fetal mortality (>28 weeks gestation);
no improvement in early fetal mortality (20-27 weeks) was found. Despite
the reduction in overall fetal morality, non-Hispanic black mothers were
1.7 times more likely to experience fetal mortality in 1990 compared to
other racial/ethnic groups and this disparity persisted in 2000. In order
to reduce fetal deaths, prevention strategies must first recognize fetal
deaths as a public health problem, improve fetal death reporting, conduct
research, and identify women at risk.
Progress Toward Global Eradication of Poliomyelitis — January 2003-April 2004While substantial progress has been made in Asia and northern Africa, intense transmission in Nigeria jeopardizes the goal of polio eradication globally. To interrupt transmission, polio-endemic countries must intensify supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), countries affected by importations need to continue emergency response campaigns throughout 2004 and 2005, and emergency SIAs should be launched in 22 West and Central African countries.
The World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis globally in 1988. Since then, implementation of eradication strategies reduced the number of polio-endemic countries from >125 to 6 in 2003. Global polio cases decreased from 1,918 in 2002 to 784 in 2003, and 185 through April 2004.
India reported 83 percent of all global polio cases in 2002 and in response intensified supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) in 2003. India, Egypt and Pakistan have recorded the lowest level of transmission during the second half of 2003 and are at record lows in 2004.
Nigeria has reported the largest number of cases in 2003 and 2004. Low SIA quality and suspension of SIAs in some States led to intense transmission in northern Nigeria, re-infection of previously polio-free areas within the country, and exportation of poliovirus to 9 previously polio-free countries.
West Nile Virus Activity — United States, June 16-22, 2004
No summary available.
This page last reviewed June 24, 2004
Disease Control and Prevention