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MMWR
Synopsis for April 12, 2002

The MMWR is embargoed until 12 Noon, ET, Thursdays.

  1. Enterobacter sakazakii Infections Associated with the Use of Powdered Infant Formula Tennessee, 2001
  2. Annual Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Economic Costs United States, 19951999
  3. Traumatic Brain Injury American Indians/Alaska Natives, 19921996
  4. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication Egypt, 2001

MMWR Reports and Recommendations
April 12, 2002, Vol. 51, No. RR-3

Prevention and Control of Influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)
This report updates the 2001 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of influenza vaccine and antiviral. A link to this report and other information related to influenza can be accessed online at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/.

Contact: Carolyn Bridges, M.D.
CDC, National Center for Infectious Diseases
(404) 6393747


Telebriefing, April 11, 2002
WHO: Dr. Terry Pechacek, CDC tobacco prevention expert
      and
Dr. Matthew Kuehnert, CDC infectious disease expert
WHAT: To discuss articles this week's MMWR on tobacco prevention and Enterobacter sakazakii and infant formula. Brief remarks followed by Q/A.
WHEN: Thursday, April 12, 2002; 1:00-1:30 PM ET
WHERE: At your desk, by toll-free conference line: Dial 866-254-5942
Teleconference name: CDC
A full transcript of this teleconference will be available today following the teleconference on the CDC website at http://www.cdc.gov/media/.

This teleconference will also be audio webcast. Listen LIVE online at http://www.cdc.gov/media/.

Synopsis for April 12, 2002

Enterobacter sakazakii Infections Associated with the Use of Powdered Infant Formula Tennessee, 2001

Healthcare personnel need to be aware that powdered infant formula is not sterile, and can cause infection.

 
PRESS CONTACT:
Matthew Kuehnert, MD

CDC, National Center for Infectious Diseases
(404) 6396426
 

This report summarizes an investigation of a fatal infection due to E. sakazakii in a hospitalized neonate traced to contamination of commercial milk-based powdered infant formula. Clinicians should be aware of potential risks of infection from use of non-sterile formula in the neonatal healthcare setting. This is the first report of E. sakazakii infection associated with infant formula prompting recall of a commercial product in the United States. Proper handling and use of infant formula products in the healthcare setting is an important patient safety issue. Cases of invasive disease due to E. sakazakii in neonates should be reported to CDC and adverse events associated with formula should be reported to the Food and Drug Administration.

 

Annual Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Economic Costs United States, 19951999

Each year in the U.S., smoking kills nearly one-half million people and results in roughly $150 billion in economic losses.

 
PRESS CONTACT:
Terry Pechacek, PhD

CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Promotion
(770) 4885493
 

According to a new CDC study, each pack of cigarettes sold in the United States costs the nation an estimated $7.18 in medical care costs and lost productivity. In a study reflecting smoking-attributable mortality, years of life lost, and economic costs, CDC found that smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, causing an estimated 440,000 premature deaths annually from 1995 to 1999. This includes over 35,000 heart disease deaths caused by secondhand smoke. Economic costs totaled more than $150 billion in annual health-related expenditures over the same time period, the study concluded.

 

Traumatic Brain Injury American Indians/Alaska Natives, 19921996

Although injuries are the second leading cause of death among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN), little is known about non-fatal injuries in this population.

 
PRESS CONTACT:
Nelson Adekoya, DrPH

CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
(770) 4884642
 

This study looks at AI/ANs who received services for traumatic brain injury (TBI) at an Indian Health Service (IHS), tribal or contract hospital between 1992-1996. This study found 4,491 TBI-related hospitalizations, which resulted in 21,107 hospital days in the five year period. These data do not include out-patient visits for rehabilitation services due to TBI. Thirty-two percent of TBI-related hospitalization records were coded with unspecified external cause of injury (E-code), thereby limiting potential TBI prevention efforts. Motor vehicle collisions were found to be a major cause of TBI hospitalization among the AI/AN population although assaults and falls are also major contributors to the occurrence of TBI. Injury prevention programs can reduce motor vehicle-related injuries, but more research is needed to plan effective prevention strategies for reducing assault and fall-related TBI.

 

Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication Egypt, 2001

This report summaries progress toward polio eradication in Egypt.

 
PRESS CONTACT:
Howard Gary, PhD

CDC, National Immunization Program
(404) 6398252
 

Despite significant progress in eradicating polio from Egypt, the virus continues to circulate. When the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate polio in 1988, Egypt had one of the highest rates of polio in the world. Since then, the country has made significant progress, with only 5 polio cases reported in 2001. Poliovirus continues to circulate throughout much of the country, however, as shown by recent tests of wastewater from 10 towns along the Nile from the Delta area in the north to Aswan in the south. Because environmental and population factors in Egypt may be particularly favorable for the polio virus, the Ministry of Health and Population of Egypt, with the help of WHO, is taking steps to improve the quality of their polio program even further.


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