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MMWR
Synopsis for March 3, 2000

MMWR articles are embargoed until 4 p.m. E.S.T. Thursdays.

  1. Monitoring Hospital-Acquired Infections to Promote Patient Safety United States, 19901999
  2. Corporate Action to Reduce Air Pollution Atlanta, Georgia, 19981999
  3. Development and Expanding Contributions of the Global Laboratory Network for Poliomyelitis Eradication, 19971999

MMWR
Synopsis for March 3, 2000

Monitoring Hospital-Acquired Infections to Promote Patient Safety United States, 19901999

Well designed, voluntary reporting systems can serve an important role in reducing adverse health events, such as hospital acquired infections.

 
PRESS CONTACT:
Division of Media Relations
CDC, Office of Communication
(404) 6393286
Hospital-acquired infections affect approximately 2 million persons annually. CDC's National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system is a voluntary, confidential hospital-based reporting system, established in 1970, to monitor and assist in preventing hospital-acquired infections. Among participating NNIS hospitals, bloodstream infection rates have decreased by more than 30% since 1990. Similarly, wound infections following surgery have decreased by 60% among high risk patients in participating NNIS hospitals. Although the challenges currently faced are substantial, the NNIS system is consistent with the Institute of Medicine's recommendation for non-punitive reporting systems, and could serve as a model strategy to monitor and prevent other adverse patient events.

 

Corporate Action to Reduce Air Pollution Atlanta, Georgia, 19981999

Although there have been decreases in single occupancy commute rates, many persons still do not participate in alternative commuting programs.

 
PRESS CONTACT:
Joshua Mott, Ph.D.
CDC, National Center for Environmental Health
(404) 6392547
The metro-Atlanta area ranks first in the United States in annual vehicle miles traveled per household. Because 53% of all nitrogen oxide emissions come from mobile sources of pollution, programs that successfully reduce vehicle miles traveled may be able to reduce ozone-producing emissions and ozone-related health effects. The Partnership for a Smog-Free Georgia (PSG) is a state-sponsored program that provides a range of federal and state subsidized commuting alternatives for employees. PSG program implementation was associated with around a 20% decrease in single-occupancy commute rates, and an 11%18% decrease in monthly commute miles traveled and associated emissions. However, it remains unclear how programs such as the PSG can impact non-commuting activities that generate emissions (e.g., lawn-care practices, and gasoline and chemical solvent usage).

 

Development and Expanding Contributions of the Global Laboratory Network for Poliomyelitis Eradication, 19971999

The laboratory network for polio eradication will eventually generate the data to certify the world as polio-free.

 
PRESS CONTACT:
Roland Sutter, M.D., M.P.H.&T.M.
CDC, National Immunization Program
(404) 6398762
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis globally by the year 2000. To monitor the progress of the eradication program, an elaborate surveillance system for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and poliovirus has been put in place, and functioning in virtually all polio-endemic countries. As part of surveillance, two stool samples are collected from each AFP case and processed in a WHO-accredited national laboratory. Should poliovirus be isolated, the isolates are shipped to regional laboratories to determine whether the virus is vaccine-derived or wild; to determine the origin of a virus requires further testing at a specialized laboratory. This laboratory network currently comprises of 148 laboratories worldwide (including 126 national or sub-national, 16 regional, and six specialized laboratories) and processed nearly 50,000 stool specimens for viral isolation in 1999.

 


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