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Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal

Highlights: Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 19, No. 3, (March 2013)

Disclaimer

The articles of interest summarized below will appear in the March 2013 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases, CDC’s monthly peer-reviewed public health journal. This issue will feature tuberculosis. The articles are embargoed until February 13, 2013, at 12 p.m. EDT.

Note: Not all articles published in EID represent work done at CDC. In your stories, please clarify whether a study was conducted by CDC (“a CDC study”) or by another institution (“a study published by CDC”). The opinions expressed by authors contributing to EID do not necessarily reflect the opinions of CDC or the institutions with which the authors are affiliated.

1. Foodborne Disease Prevention and Broiler Chickens with Reduced Campylobacter Infection, Simon Bahrndorff et al.

In the European Union, most bacterial diarrheal illness is caused by Campylobacter. The most common source of infection is contaminated raw or undercooked chicken meat. Protecting broiler chickens from flies, which transmit the infection to chickens, would help prevent foodborne illness in humans. Existing biosecurity measures to protect the chickens have not been effective enough during peak fly season in the summer. Therefore, researchers examined the effectiveness of using fly screens on chicken houses. Study results showed that screens greatly reduced Campylobacter in chickens during the summer. Protecting chicken houses with fly screens might ultimately help prevent foodborne campylobacteriosis in humans.

Contact:
Birthe Hald
National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark
+45 51647491
bhal@food.dtu.dk
Or
Simon Bahrndorff
National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark
(604) 715-5378
siba@food.dtu.dk

2. Human Leptospirosis Trends, the Netherlands, 1925–2008, Marga G.A. Goris et al.

Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease of humans and animals. It is spread by contact with infected animals, either directly or indirectly through an infected, wet environment. Disease can be severe or mild. Without treatment, severe leptospirosis can harm the kidneys, nervous system, liver, and respiratory system, and can be fatal. The disease is often overlooked because it is hard to diagnose. Leptospirosis trends in the Netherlands over the past 84 years show that the disease was 10 times more common among men than women and more severe in men. More than half the cases were acquired outside the country; most (80%) of those were associated with water-related sport and adventure activities, such as white-water rafting. Less than half the cases acquired within the country were associated with recreational activities. The remaining cases were attributed to occupational exposure and accidents. This data is based on research by the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Biomedical Research department, The Netherlands.

Contact:
Mr. Chang Wong
Communication, Hospitality & Facilities Department
Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), The Netherlands
+31 (0)20 – 568 8296
c.wong@kit.nl

 

3. Measles Elimination Efforts and 2008–2011 Outbreak, France, D. Antona, et al.

Will France meet its goal of eliminating measles by 2015? During 2006 and 2007, a very low number of cases were notified. But just 1 year later, an explosive measles epidemic challenged that goal. During 2008–2011, approximately 22,000 cases were reported, 5,000 patients were hospitalized, and 10 patients died. Despite a stepped-up vaccination plan that started in 2005, 80 percent of those who became ill were adolescents or young adults who had not been vaccinated. The outbreak confirmed that the level of immunity needed to eliminate measles is very high and that high vaccination coverage among children alone is not enough to stop measles spread. Attempts to convey the urgent need for vaccination catch-up to older age groups were largely unsuccessful until 2011, when the epidemic peaked and many patients were hospitalized and several died. Whether the level of immunity is now high enough to prevent future epidemics and achieve the 2015 goal of elimination remains to be confirmed.

Contact:
Press Office
Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint-Maurice, France
presse@invs.sante.fr

4. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection after Fractionated CO2 Laser Resurfacing, Donna A. Culton et al.

Fractionated CO2 laser resurfacing is a cosmetic procedure used to improve the appearance of the skin. Complications are rare, but among them are skin infections. When skin infections developed in 2 patients who had undergone this procedure at the same clinic, the clinic was suspected as the source. However, multiple different types of mycobacteria were found, and those found in the clinic did not match those causing either patient infection. Thus, the patients may have become infected outside the clinic after the procedure. Although the source of infection was never identified for these patients, precautions should be used to lower the risk for infection. Clinics should use sterile techniques during the procedure, and patients should use sterile solution to clean the treated areas at home after the procedure.

Contact:
Anne M. Lachiewicz
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine
University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC
alachiew@unch.unc.edu

5. Cryptococcus gattii, Florida, USA, 2011, Rajesh Kunadharaju et al.

Cryptococcus gattii, a fungal infection that usually affects the lungs and central nervous system, is rarely reported in the United States outside of an ongoing outbreak in the Pacific Northwest. The outbreak involves three unusual strains of C. gattii, called VGIIa, VGIIb, and VGIIc. Outside of the Pacific Northwest outbreak, these strains of C. gattii have not been reported to cause infections in the United States. So when a case appeared in a patient in Florida, it was unusual. This patient, infected with the VGIIb strain of C. gattii and presenting with meningitis and a leg infection, had not left Florida for 20 years, so he probably acquired the infection locally. But where? The source of his infection remains unknown. However, clinicians should be alerted to the presence of Cryptococcus gattii infections outside the northwest United States

Contact:
John N. Greene
Moffitt Cancer Center
University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, FL
john.greene@moffitt.org

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