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Potential Sampling Sites for Legionella spp. in Health Care Facilities

Potable water system

  • Incoming water main
  • Water softener
  • Holding tanks, cisterns
  • Water heater tanks (at the inflows and outflows)


Potable water outlets, especially those in or near patient rooms

  • Faucets or taps
  • Showers


Cooling tower, evaporative condenser

  • Makeup water (e.g., added to replace water lost because of evaporation, drift, leakage)
  • Basin (i.e., area under the tower for collection of cooled water)
  • Sump (i.e., section of basin from which cooled water returns to heat source)
  • Heat sources (e.g., chillers)


Humidifiers ( e.g ., nebulizers)

  • Bubblers for oxygen
  • Water used for respiratory therapy equipment


Other sources

  • Decorative fountains
  • Irrigation equipment
  • Fire sprinkler system (if recently used)
  • Hot tubs

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