Epidemiology and Surveillance
- CDC. Recreational water-associated disease outbreaks—United States, 2009-2010. MMWR 2014;63:6-10.
- CDC. Surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water—United States, 2009-2010. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2013;63:714-20.
- CDC. [Increasing incidence of] Legionellosis in the United States, 2000-2009. MMWR 2011;60:1083-1086.
- Romero-Steiner S, Baxendale H, Carlone GM, Goldblatt D. Transition to high throughput laboratory assays to evaluate multivalent vaccines in new generation vaccines. In: Levine M, ed. New Generation Vaccines, 4th ed. Informa Healthcare; 2009:219-26.
- Neil K. and Berkelman R. Increasing incidence of legionellosis in the United States, 1990-2005: changing epidemiologic trends. Clin Infect Dis 2008;47:591-9.
- CDC. Surveillance for travel-associated Legionnaires’ disease—United States, 2005-2006. MMWR 2007;56(48):1261-1263.
- Fields BS, Benson RF, Besser RE. Legionella and Legionnaires' disease: 25 years of investigation. Clin Microbiol Rev 2002;15:506-26.
- Benin AL, Benson RF, Arnold KE, et al. An outbreak of travel-associated Legionnaires’ disease and Pontiac fever: the need for enhanced surveillance of travel-associated legionellosis. J Infect Dis 2002;185:237-243.
- Benin AL, Benson RF, Besser RE. Trends in Legionnaires’ disease, 1980-1998: declining mortality and new patterns of diagnosis. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:1039-46.
- Kool JL, Fiore AE, Kioski CM, et al. More than 10 years of unrecognized nosocomial transmission of Legionnaires’ disease among transplant patients. Infect Ctrl and Hosp Epi 1998;19:898-904.
- Lepine LA, Jernigan DB, Butler JC, et al. A recurrent outbreak of nosocomial Legionnaires’ disease detected by urinary antigen testing: evidence for long-term colonization of a hospital plumbing system. Infect Ctrl and Hosp Epi 1998;19:905-910.
Laboratory and Environment
- Kozak NA, Lucas CE, Winchell JM. Identification of Legionella in the environment[23 pages]. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;954:3-25.
- Burnsed LJ, Hicks LA, Smithee LM, et al. A large, travel-associated outbreak of legionellosis among hotel guests: utility of the urine antigen assay in confirming Pontiac fever. Clin Infect Dis 2007;44:222-8.
- Moore MR, Pryor M, Fields B, et al. Introduction of monochloramine into a municipal water system: impact on colonization of buildings by Legionella spp. Appl Environ Microbiol 2006;72: 378-383.
- Rowbotham TJ. Legionellosis associated with ships: 1977 to1997. Comm Dis Public Health. 1998;1(3):146–51.
- Kohler RB, Winn Jr. WC, Wheat LJ. Onset and duration of urinary antigen excretion in Legionnaires’ disease. J Clin Microbiol 1984;20:605-7.
- Barbaree JM, Gorman GW, Martin WT, Fields, BS, Morrill WE. Protocol for Sampling Environmental Sites for Legionellae. Appl Environ Microbiol 1987;53(7): 1454-8.
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- Department of Veterans Affairs. Prevention of healthcare-associated Legionella disease and scald injury from potable water distribution systems. VHA Directive 1061; 2014.
- Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis 2007;44 Suppl 2:S27-72.
- CDC. Guidelines for preventing health-care-associated pneumonia, 2003: recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). MMWR 2004;53(RR03):1-36.
- CDC. Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities: recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). MMWR 2003;52(RR10):1-42. Printer-friendly version also available [1.4 MB, 249 pages].
- American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ASHRAE Guideline 12-2000: Minimizing the risk of legionellosis associated with building water systems. 2000.
- Legionella Surveillance and Outbreak Reports
- Fact sheets
- Press releases & matte releases related to recreational water illness (RWI)
- Legionella - Chapter 5 of Travelers' Yellow Book
- EPA: Legionella: Drinking Water Health Advisory. 2001 [27 pages]
Three talks by CDC experts at the 1st Annual Smart Water Leadership Summit (June 2013)
- Page last reviewed: February 11, 2014
- Page last updated: September 4, 2014
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