Epidemiology and Surveillance
- Garrison LE, Kunz JM, Cooley LA, et al. Vital Signs: Deficiencies in environmental control identified in outbreaks of Legionnaires’ disease - North America, 2000–2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. ePub: 7 June 2016.
- Quinn C, Demirjian A, Lucas C, et al. Legionnaires’ disease outbreak at a long-term care facility caused by a cooling tower using an automated disinfection system—Ohio, 2013 [6 pages]. J Environ Health. 2015;78(5):8–13.
- Dooling KL, Toews KA, Hicks LA, et al. Active Bacterial Core surveillance for legionellsois – United States, 2011–2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(42):1190–3.
- Beer KD, Gargano JW, Roberts VA, et al. Outbreaks associated with environmental and undetermined water exposures — United States, 2011–2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(31):849–51.
- Beer KD, Gargano JW, Roberts VA, et al. Surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water — United States, 2011–2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(31):842–8.
- Demirjian A, Lucas CE, Garrison LE, et al. The importance of clinical surveillance in detecting Legionnaires' disease outbreaks: A large outbreak in a hospital with a Legionella disinfection system—Pennsylvania, 2011–2012. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60(11):1596–1602.
- CDC. Recreational water-associated disease outbreaks—United States, 2009-2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:6–10.
- Silk BJ, Moore MR, Bergtholdt M, et al. Eight years of Legionnaires' disease transmission in travellers to a condominium complex in Las Vegas, Nevada. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:1993–2002.
- CDC. [Increasing incidence of] Legionellosis in the United States, 2000-2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60:1083–6.
- Neil K. and Berkelman R. Increasing incidence of legionellosis in the United States, 1990-2005: changing epidemiologic trends. Clin Infect Dis 2008;47:591–9.
- CDC. Surveillance for travel-associated Legionnaires’ disease—United States, 2005-2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007;56(48):1261–3.
- Fields BS, Benson RF, Besser RE. Legionella and Legionnaires' disease: 25 years of investigation. Clin Microbiol Rev 2002;15:506–26.
- Benin AL, Benson RF, Arnold KE, et al. An outbreak of travel-associated Legionnaires’ disease and Pontiac fever: the need for enhanced surveillance of travel-associated legionellosis. J Infect Dis 2002;185:237–43.
- Benin AL, Benson RF, Besser RE. Trends in Legionnaires’ disease, 1980-1998: declining mortality and new patterns of diagnosis. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:1039–46.
- Kool JL, Fiore AE, Kioski CM, et al. More than 10 years of unrecognized nosocomial transmission of Legionnaires’ disease among transplant patients. Infect Ctrl and Hosp Epi 1998;19:898–904.
- Lepine LA, Jernigan DB, Butler JC, et al. A recurrent outbreak of nosocomial Legionnaires’ disease detected by urinary antigen testing: evidence for long-term colonization of a hospital plumbing system. Infect Ctrl and Hosp Epi 1998;19:905-10.
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Laboratory and Environment
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- Kozak-Muiznieks NA, Lucas CE, Brown E, et al. Prevalence of sequence types among clinical and environmental isolates of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 in the United States from 1982 to 2012. J Clin Micro. 2014;52(1):201–11.
- Kozak NA, Lucas CE, Winchell JM. Identification of Legionella in the environment[23 pages]. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;954:3–25.
- Burnsed LJ, Hicks LA, Smithee LM, et al. A large, travel-associated outbreak of legionellosis among hotel guests: utility of the urine antigen assay in confirming Pontiac fever. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:222–8.
- Moore MR, Pryor M, Fields B, et al. Introduction of monochloramine into a municipal water system: impact on colonization of buildings by Legionella spp. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72: 378–83.
- Rowbotham TJ. Legionellosis associated with ships: 1977 to1997. Comm Dis Public Health. 1998;1(3):146–51.
- Kohler RB, Winn Jr. WC, Wheat LJ. Onset and duration of urinary antigen excretion in Legionnaires’ disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1984;20:605–7.
- Barbaree JM, Gorman GW, Martin WT, et al. Protocol for Sampling Environmental Sites for Legionellae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1987;53(7): 1454–8.
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- Page last reviewed: May 31, 2016
- Page last updated: June 8, 2016
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