Bhutanese Refugee Health Profile
Infectious Disease: Hansen's Disease
Upon arrival in Texas, 1.3% (33/2558) of refugees screened in June 2009–May 2011 had chronic infection with hepatitis B as indicated by detectable serum hepatitis B surface antigen. 1 Of those who tested negative for hepatitis B surface antigen, 24% demonstrated hepatitis B core and/or surface antibody indicating some degree of immunity; 2.7% were positive for both hepatitis B core and surface antibodies indicating clearance of natural infection, 20% of refugees demonstrated only surface antibodies most likely due to past vaccination, and 1.4% had only positive core antibodies, most likely indicating clearance of past infection (although this can also be due to low-level chronic infection, resolving acute infection, or false positive test). It should be noted that a positive hepatitis B surface antibody may be positive if measured after the first or second dose of vaccination and does not necessarily indicate long-term immunity. Refugees generally do not receive the full hepatitis B series prior to migration.
Approximately 45% of Bhutanese refugees resettled in one large resettlement state in June 2009–May 2011tested positive for hepatitis A antibodies, indicating previous exposure. 1 There are no data available on the prevalence of infectious hepatitis in the camps in Nepal.