Archival Content: 1999-2005
HIV Prevention Among Drug Users:
Appendix B: Summaries of Resources That Address Behavioral Theories and Research on HIV Prevention Interventions with Drug Users
Each resource listed in Appendix B reviews and comments on aspects of HIV prevention interventions which will help prevention planners and program managers in considering program activities. The contents of this appendix provides the following information:
Appendix B presents summaries of selected books, monographs, chapters of books, and articles. The books, chapters of books, and monographs describe various types of HIV prevention interventions, explore the determinants of behavior, and outline special cultural issues and factors of particular relevance to different groups defined by race/ethnicity, gender, age, and sexual orientation. We selected these materials to expand on and enhance the information that is presented in the Evaluation Summary Forms in Appendix A. For each resource, we provide a summary page that contains an abstract and highlights of the key areas on which the authors focused.
Prevention planners and program managers can review these summaries to determine if a resource has information relevant to their particular planning needs. They can also look for information on target population, type of intervention, and research on effectiveness.
The following summaries are adapted from book jackets, promotional descriptions, and the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) MEDLINE/AIDSLINE article abstracts. In cases where an abstract is unavailable, they are drawn from opening paragraphs in the articles themselves.
Battjes RJ, Sloboda Z, Grace WC, editors
National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series 143. Rockville (MD): National Institutes of Health; 1994. Available from: National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH Publication No. 94-3750.
This monograph is based on papers that were presented at a technical review meeting on "The Context of HIV Risk Among Drug Users and Their Sexual Partners" held on April 22-23, 1993. The meeting's purpose was to review research on drug use and sexual behaviors of drug users associated with HIV transmission, and develop a research agenda for future directions. The meeting was convened by NIDA and was the result of an earlier NIDA-sponsored meeting that was held in January 1992.
Injection and Sexual Risk Behaviors of Male Heterosexual
Injecting Drug Users
HIV/AIDS Risks Among Male, Heterosexual Non-injecting
Female Drug Abusers and the Context of Their HIV
Factors Associated with Sexual Risk of AIDS in
Men Who Have Sex With Men
Substance Use and HIV-Transmitting Behaviors Among
Gay and Bisexual Men
Drug Use and HIV Risk Among Male Sex Workers:
HIV Risk in Adolescents: The Role of Sexual Activity
and Substance Use Behaviors
Going Nowhere Fast: Methamphetamine Use and HIV
Bringing the Context in From the Cold: Substantive,
Technical, and Statistical Issues for AIDS Research in the Second Decade
The Context of Risk: Ethnographic Contributions
to the Study of Drug Use and HIV
Assessing the Reliability and Validity of Self-Reported
Future Directions for
Studies on the Context of HIV Risk
Needle RH, Coyle SL, Genser SG, Trotter RT, editors
National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series 151. Rockville (MD). National Institutes of Health; 1995. Available from: National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH Publication No. 95-3889.
This monograph is based on papers that were presented at a technical review meeting on "Social Networks, Drug Abuse and HIV Transmission" held on August 19-20, 1993. The NIDA-sponsored meeting examined the "social network research paradigm and its application to the study of drug use and HIV transmission." The studies reviewed focused on drug abuse and its relationship to HIV transmission within the context of a variety of networks (e.g., drug injectors, sex workers, siblings and other relatives, and sexual partners). Four main conclusions were drawn from the data: 1) network characteristics affect behavioral practices as well as the chance of HIV infection; 2) migration and transient groups affect the incidence of viral transmission of other network groups; 3) the adoption of individual risk behaviors is affected by network membership characteristics and network norms; and 4) "network-oriented interventions aimed at diffusing information about HIV and at changing transactional patterns have been successful at introducing behavioral change among network members, reducing high-risk behaviors, accelerating readiness for treatment, and limiting the spread of HIV."
Introduction: the Social Network Research Paradigm
Social Networks in Disease Transmission: the Colorado
Using Dyadic Data for a Network Analysis of HIV
Infection and Risk Behaviors
Injecting Drug Use, Characteristics of Significant
Others, and HIV Risk Behaviors
Sibling Homophily in HIV Infection: Biopsychosocial
Linkages in an
Focal Networks and HIV Risk Among African American
A Comparison of Drug Use Networks Across Three
Ethical and Legal Issues in Social Network Research:
the Real and the Ideal
Network Models for HIV Outreach and Prevention
Programs for Drug Users
A Personal Network Approach to AIDS Prevention:
an Experimental Peer
Promising Social Network
Research Results and Suggestions for a Research Agenda
Sorensen JL, Wermuth LA, Gibson DR, Choi KH, Guydish
JR, Batki SL
The book presents the results of several San Francisco experiments aimed at preventing AIDS among drug users and their sex partners. The authors present research findings that support the proposition that targeted AIDS prevention efforts can be effective. Although the bulk of the work presented occurred in San Francisco, the findings are placed in the context of extensive investigations of other research groups, clinicians, and national and international experts about public policy. The book discusses AIDS, drug use, sexual behaviors, and theories of change. This is followed by chapters that suggest how to prevent AIDS by action with drug users and their sexual partners. The final part of the book makes concluding recommendations about disseminating prevention programs and forming effective policies.
Des Jarlais DC, Friedman SR, Ward TP Annual Review of Public Health 1993;14:413-450
This article presents an overview of the harm reduction approach to HIV prevention among injecting drug users (IDUs). It begins with a discussion of the epidemiology of HIV infection among IDUs, outlining the importance of preventing infection in drug-using populations. The authors then summarize what is understood under the harm reduction perspective, i.e., that problems associated with psychoactive drug use are not direct results of drug use as such, but rather drug use behavior, and therefore HIV prevention efforts must focus on specific behaviors that put drug users at risk for HIV. In this perspective, there is no single best solution to preventing HIV infection among drug users; drug users are seen as capable of making rational choices regarding their HIV risk behaviors, and importance is placed on overcoming the marginalization of drug users by society. Several types of HIV prevention programs and approaches for IDUs that may be part of a harm reduction strategy are described, including syringe exchanges; over-the-counter availability of sterile injection equipment; drug abuse treatment, outreach, and bleach distribution programs; HIV counseling and testing; and the formation of drug users' organizations aimed at promoting risk reduction strategies from within drug-using populations. Pragmatic concerns related to the harm reduction approach are discussed, such as questions about whether and how behavior change can be maintained over time, and what role sexual risk behaviors play. Finally, philosophic concerns related to this approach are presented, including whether or not the harm reduction perspective appears to condone illicit drug use.
Early Epidemiology of
HIV Infection Among IDUs
Des Jarlais DC
This document discusses the results of major intervention studies (mainly, the NADR/ATOM project), theories of social and behavioral change, and the legal/political system related to HIV/AIDS prevention among the injection drug users. The application of social and behavioral theories of change to HIV/AIDS prevention strategies is discussed.
The Evolution of AIDS
Prevention for Reducing HIV Transmission Among IDU
Friedman SR, Neaigus A, Des Jarlais DC , Sotheran
JL, Woods J, Sufian M, Stepherson B, Sterk C
Many drug injectors continue to engage in behaviors that lead them to become infected with HIV in spite of a wide variety of public health programs. In addition, many persons have begun to inject drugs in spite of knowing the risks of AIDS. The authors argue that the inadequacy of current efforts to prevent these behaviors suggests that social interventions be tried to complement current programs (almost all of which have an individual focus). Evidence that social factors such as peer pressure and the social relations of race affect risk behavior is presented. Social interventions discussed include organizing drug injectors against AIDS in ways analogous to those in which gays organized against the epidemic, and finding ways to change large-scale social relationships that predispose people to inject drugs.
Collective Action Against AIDS
Changing the Social Structure
Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences
In June 1995, the Institute of Medicine (IOM), with support from the Office of AIDS Research at the National Institutes of Health, convened a workshop committee to consider the contributions of the social and behavioral sciences to AIDS prevention, assess the current understanding of the epidemic, draw new insights to help guide further research on the complex issues associated with the epidemic, and identify important research questions and relevant methodologies needed for the future. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions of the workshop with reference to key insights from the commissioned background and response papers. The workshop extended the review of preventive interventions targeted at individual behavior change found in the 1994 IOM report, AIDS and Behavior: An Integrated Approach. Focused on more social-level analyses, this summary and the accompanying background papers are useful companion documents to the earlier IOM report.
Mata AG, Jorquez JS
This chapter discusses intravenous drug use and needle-sharing practices among Mexican Americans, potential influences promoting and/or deterring these behaviors, and how these behaviors have been affected by the HIV epidemic. It begins with a historical review of substance abuse among Mexican Americans and describes socioeconomic and cultural factors that affect prevention efforts among ethnic minorities. It then concludes with recommendations for the development of prevention programs among Mexican American drug users and suggests ways in which to involve their social networks (i.e., sexual partners, families and children) in these prevention efforts.
Background and Historical
Normand J, Vlahov D, Moses LE, editors
This book is the result of a legislative directive (July 1992 ADAMHA Reorganization ACT) that requested the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to conduct a study to determine the effectiveness of needle exchange and bleach distribution programs. A panel was created and relevant research was gathered and analyzed. This book describes research relevant to the effects of such programs on drug use rates, IDU behaviors, and the spread of AIDS and hepatitis among IDUs and their sexual partners. Also discussed are characteristics associated with effective programs, and recommendations for future research and evaluation methods applicable to the evaluation of such programs.
Padian NS, Wijgert J, O'Brien TR
In this chapter the authors assess partner notification and HIV antibody testing and counseling programs. They describe in detail the design and results of a couple-counseling protocol from the California Partner Study and discuss the complexities of identifying partners of HIV infected and high risk individuals, and the effects of HIV antibody testing, counseling, and AIDS education on behavior change. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the limitations and strengths (i.e., external and internal validity, and subject recruitment and attrition) of all of these approaches.
Watters JK, Guydish J
In this chapter, the authors discuss HIV prevention interventions that have targeted IDUs in natural settings (mostly outreach programs). First they present the historical background of strategies used in traditional drug treatment programs and their limitations for HIV prevention. The authors address benefits and challenges of developing and evaluating HIV prevention programs among drug users in natural settings by describing various research and evaluation methodologies.
Major Approaches to Drug Abuse Treatment and Prevention
Limitations of Drug Treatment as an HIV Prevention Strategy
Prevention Efforts in Natural Settings
Challenges in Evaluating Programs in Natural Settings
Weissman G, Brown V
This chapter discusses the educational, cultural, socioeconomic, psychological, and physical barriers drug-using women encounter, describes some of the approaches to overcome them, and provides strategies to develop successful prevention and risk-reduction programs for drug-using women. The results of three major studies (the National AIDS Demonstration Research (NADR) program, the Nontraditional Supports for Drug Using Women project, and the Women Helping to Empower and Enhance Lives (WHEEL) project) are discussed in depth, along with tools used to assess psychological status and risk-behaviors.
Major Approaches to Drug Abuse Treatment and Prevention
Challenges in Evaluating Programs in Natural Settings
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