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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Archival Content: 1999-2005

A Comprehensive Approach:
Preventing Blood-Borne Infections Among Injection Drug Users


Chapter 1, Section 4: References

Abdala N, Stephens PC, Griffith BP, Heimer R. Survival of HIV-1 in syringes. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology.1999;20(1):73-80.

Academy for Educational Development. HIV prevention among drug users: are source book for community planners and program managers. Washington (DC): Academy for Educational Development; 1997. Funding provided under Centers for Disease Control and Prevention contract number 200-91-0906.

Alter MJ. Hepatitis C virus infection in the United States. Journal of Hepatology 1999;31(Suppl 1):88-91.

Alter MJ, Kruszon-Moran D, Nainan OV, McQuillan GM, Gao F, Moyer LA, Kaslow RA, Margolis HS. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1988 through 1994. New England Journal of Medicine 1999;341:556-562.

Alter MJ and Moyer LA. The importance of preventing hepatitis C virus infection among injection drug users in the United States. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology. 1998;18(Suppl 1):S6-S10.

Battjes RJ, Slobada Z, Grace WC, editors. National Institute on Drug Abuse research monograph 143: the context of HIV risk among drug users and their sexual partners. Rockville (MD): National Institute on Drug Abuse; 1994. NIH Publication No. 94-3750.

Belenko S. Behind bars: substance abuse and America's prison population. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA); January, 1998. www.casacolumbia.orgLink to a Non-CDC Link

Bluthenthal RN, Kral AH, Erringer EA, Edlin BR. Drug paraphernalia laws and injection-related infectious disease risk among drug injectors. Journal of Drug Issues 1999a;29(1):1-16.

Bluthenthal RN, Lorvick J, Kral AH, Erringer EA, Kahn JG. Collateral damage in the war on drugs: HIV risk behaviors among injection drug users. The International Journal of Drug Policy 1999b; 10:25-38.

Bourgois P. The moral economies of homeless heroin addicts: confronting ethnography, HIV risk, and everyday violence in San Francisco shooting encampments. Substance Use and Misuse 1998;33(11):2323-2351.

Bourgois P. Participant observation study of in direct paraphernalia sharing/HIV risk in a network of heroin injectors. Study supported by Community Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse (Contract #263-MD-519210) and Community Epidemiology Work Group, National Institute on Drug Abuse (Contract #N01DA-3-5201). Unpublished.

Case P, Meehan T, Jones TS. Arrests and incarceration of injection drug users for syringe possession in Massachusetts: implications for HIV prevention. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Retrovirology 1998;18(Suppl 1):S71-S75.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. 1999a;11(2):1-45.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Trends in the HIV/AIDS epidemic-1998. 1999b.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). HIV/AIDS surveillance - general epidemiology slide set. 1999c.

Chu A, Torbert A, Brown A, Ellison J, Matthew I, McFarland J, Forlenza S. Overlapping AIDS epidemic among injecting drug use (IDU) and heterosexual exposure (HT) in New York City (NYC) AIDS cases. 5th Conference on Retrovirology and Opportunistic Infections, February 1-5.P.103 (Abstract No. 129); 1998.

Community Epidemiology Working Group (CEWG), National Institute on Drug Abuse. Drug abuse highlights for the United States. 45th meeting of the Community Epidemiology Working Group, Miami, Florida, December 15-18, 1998.

Coutinho RA. HIV and hepatitis C among injecting drug users. [editorial] British Medical Journal 1998;317(7156):424-425.

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Des Jarlais DC, Marmor M, Friedmann P, Titus S, Aviles E, Deren S, Torian L, Glebatis D, Murrill C, Monterroso E, Friedman SR. HIV incidence among injection drug users in New York City, 1992-1997: evidence for a declining epidemic. American Journal of Public Health 2000;90(3):352-359.

Des Jarlais DC, Perlis T, Friedman SR, Deren S, Chapman T, Sotheran JL, TortuS, Beardsley M, Paone D, Torian LV, Beatrice ST, DeBernardo E, Monterroso E, Marmor M. Declining seroprevalence in a very large HIV epidemic: injecting drug users in New York City, 1991-1996. American Journal of Public Health 1998;88(12):1801-1806.

Edlin BR, Irwin KL, Faruque S, McCoy CB, Word C, Serrano Y, Inciardi JA, Bowser BP, Schilling RF, Holmberg SD. Intersecting epidemics-crack cocaine use and HIV infection among inner-city young adults. Multicenter Crack Cocaine and HIV Infection Study Team. New England Journal of Medicine 1994;331(21):1422-1427.

Eisenhandler J, Drucker E. Opiate dependency among the subscribers of a New York area private insurance plan. JAMA 1993;269(22):2890-2891.

Friedman SR, Jose B, Deren S, Des Jarlais DC, Neaigus A. Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion among out-of-treatment drug injectors in high and low seroprevalence cities. American Journal of Epidemiology 1995;142(8):864-874.

Friedman SR, Neaigus A, Jose B, Curtis R, Goldstein M, Ildefonso G, Rothenberg RB, Des Jarlais DC. Sociometric risk networks and risk for HIV infection. American Journal of Public Health 1997;87:1289-1296.

Garfein RS, Doherty MC, Monterroso ER, Thomas DL, Nelson KE, Vlahov D. Prevalence and incidence of hepatitis C virus infection among young adult injection drug users. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 1998;18(Suppl 1):S11-S19.

Garfein RS, Vlahov D, Galai N, Doherty MC, Nelson KE. Viral infections in short-term injection drug users: the prevalence of the hepatitis C, hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency, and human T-lyphotrophic viruses. American Journal of Public Health 1996;86(5):655-661.

Garfein RS, Williams IT, Monterroso ER, Valverde R, Swartzendruber A. HCV, HBV, and HIV infections among young, street-recruited injection drug users (IDUs): the collaborative injection drug users study (CIDUS II). In: Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease Abstract Book. Atlanta (GA): International Medical Press; 2000. p. 64.

Gershon RRM. Infection control basis for recommending one-time use of sterile syringes and aseptic procedures for injection drug users. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 1998;18(Suppl 1):S20-S24.

Gleghorn AA, Doherty MC, Vlahov D, Celentano DD, Jones TS. Inadequate bleach contact times during syringe cleaning among injection drug users. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 1994;7:767-772.

Hammett TM, Harmon P, Maruschak LM. 1996-1997 Update: HIV/AIDS, STDs, and TB in correctional facilities.Link to a Non-CDC Link Washington (DC): National Institute of Justice, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Criminal Justice Reference Service; July 1999.

Holmberg SD. The estimated prevalence and incidence of HIV in 96 large U.S. metropolitan areas. American Journal of Public Health. 1996;86(5):642-654.

Institute of Medicine (IOM). Assessing the social and behavioral science base for HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention. Washington (DC): National Academy Press; 1995.

Irwin KL, Edlin BR, Faruque S, McCoy HV, Word C, Serrano Y, Inciardi J, Bowser B, Holmberg SD. Crack cocaine smokers who turn to drug injection: characteristics, factors associated with injection, and implications for HIV transmission. The Multicenter Crack Cocaine and HIV Infection Study Team. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1996;42(2):85-92.

Kail BL, Watson DD, Ray S. Needle using practices within the sex industry. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 1995;21(2):241-255.

Koester S. Following the blood: syringe reuse leads to blood-borne virus transmission among injection drug users. [letter] Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Retrovirology 1998;18(Suppl 1):S139.

Koester S, Booth RE, Zhang Y. The prevalence of additional injection-related HIV risk behaviors among injection drug users. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Retrovirology 1996;12(2):202-207.

Koester S, Hoffer L. Indirect sharing: additional HIV risks associated with drug injection. AIDS and Public Policy Journal 1994;9(2):100-105.

Latkin CA, Mandell W, Vlahov D, Oziemkowska M, Celentano D. People and places: behavioral settings and personal network characteristics as correlates of needle sharing. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 1996a;13(3):273-280.

Latkin CA, Mandell W, Vlahov D, Oziemkowska M, Celentano DD. The long-term outcome of a personal network oriented HIV prevention intervention for injection drug users: the SAFE study. American Journal of Community Psychology 1996b;24(3):341-364.

Latkin CA, Mandell W, Vlahov D. A personal network approach to AIDS prevention: an experimental peer group intervention for street-injecting drug users: the SAFE study. In: Needle RH, Coyle SL, Genser SG, Trotter RT, editors. National Institute on Drug Abuse research monograph 151: social networks, drug abuse, and HIV transmission. Rockville (MD): National Institute on Drug Abuse; 1995. NIH Publication No. 95-3889.

Latkin CA, Mandell W, Vlahov D, Oziemkowska M, Knowlton A, Celentano D. My place, your place, and no place: behavior settings as a risk factor for HIV- related injection practices of drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. American Journal of Community Psychology 1994;22(3):415-430.

Leshner A. Why shouldn't society treat substance abusers? Los Angeles Times. June 11, 1999.

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McCoy CB, Rivers JE, McCoy HV, Shapshak P, Weatherby NL, Chitwood DD, Page JB, Inciardi JA, McBride DC. Compliance to bleach disinfection protocols among injecting drug users in Miami. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 1994;7:773-776.

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