immunodeficiency syndrome. AIDS can affect the immune and central
nervous systems and can result in neurological problems, infections, or
cancers. It is caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
anonymous testing, client identifying information is not linked to
testing information, including the request for tests or test results.
Antiretroviral therapy: Treatment
with drugs designed to prevent HIV from replicating in HIV-infected
persons. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is an
antiretroviral regimen that includes multiple classifications of
Capacity building: Activities
that strengthen the core competencies of an organization and contribute
to its ability to develop and implement an effective HIV prevention
intervention and sustain the infrastructure and resource base necessary
to support and maintain the intervention.
Client-centered HIV prevention counseling: An
interactive risk-reduction counseling model usually conducted with HIV
testing, in which the counselor helps the client identify and
acknowledge personal HIV risk behaviors and commit to a single,
achievable behavior change step that could reduce the client's HIV risk.
with another person, organization, or group for mutual benefit by
exchanging information, sharing resources, or enhancing the other’s
capacity, often to achieve a common goal or purpose.
Community Planning Group: The
official HIV prevention planning body that follows the HIV Prevention
Community Planning Guidance to develop a comprehensive HIV prevention
plan for a project area.
to the disclosure of personal information in a relationship of trust and
with the expectation that it will not be divulged to others in ways that
are inconsistent with the original disclosure. Confidentiality must be
maintained for persons who are recommended and/or who receive HIV
counseling, testing, and referral (CTR) services.
Confidential HIV test: An
HIV test for which a record of the test and the test results are
recorded in the client's chart.
Confirmatory test: A
highly specific test designed to confirm the results of an earlier
(screening) test. For HIV testing, a Western blot or, less commonly, an
immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is used as a confirmatory test.
Culturally Appropriate: Conforming
to a culture’s acceptable expressions and standards of behavior and
thoughts. Interventions and educational materials are more likely to be
culturally appropriate when representatives of the intended target
audience are involved in planning, developing, and pilot testing them.
statistical characteristics of human populations such as age, race,
ethnicity, sex, and size.
Duty to Warn: A
legal concept indicating that a health care provider who learns that an
HIV-infected client is likely to transmit the virus to another
identifiable person must take steps to warn that person; state laws
determine what actually constitutes a "duty to warn."
immunoassay. Sometimes referred to as ELISA (see next definition). A
commonly used screening test to detect antibodies to HIV.
immunosorbent assay. A type of EIA (see previous definition). A commonly
used screening test to detect antibodies to HIV.
process for determining how well health systems, either public or
private, deliver or improve services and for demonstrating the results
of resource investments.
social, and structural interventions that are relevant to HIV risk
reduction, have been tested using a methodologically rigorous design,
and have been shown to be effective in a research setting. These
evidence- or science-based interventions have been evaluated using
behavioral or health outcomes; have been compared to a
control/comparison group(s) (or pre-post data without a comparison group
if a policy study); had no apparent bias when assigning persons to
intervention or control groups or were adjusted for any apparent
assignment bias; and, produced significantly greater positive results
when compared to the control/comparison group(s), while not producing
Freestanding HIV test site: A
site that provides only HIV services. Sometimes referred to as alternate
test site or anonymous test site. Change term use definition.
Group-level interventions: Health
education and risk-reduction counseling that shifts the delivery of
service from the individual to groups of varying sizes. Group-level
interventions use peer and non-peer models involving a range of skills,
information, education, and support.
to assist in efforts to conduct HIV prevention activities; guiding
dictated set of activities; policies.
immunodeficiency virus, which causes AIDS. Several types of HIV exist,
with HIV-1 being the most common in the United States.
HIV test: More
correctly referred to as an HIV antibody test, the HIV test is a
laboratory procedure that detects antibodies to HIV, rather than the
HIV prevention counseling: An
interactive process between client and counselor aimed at reducing risky
sex and needle-sharing behaviors related to HIV acquisition (for
HIV-uninfected clients) or transmission (for HIV-infected clients). See
also client-centered HIV prevention counseling.
epidemiology, the number of new cases of infection or disease that occur
in a defined population within a specified time.
Individual-level interventions: Health
education and risk-reduction counseling provided for one individual at a
time. ILIs help clients make plans for behavior change and ongoing
appraisals of their own behavior and include skills-building activities.
These interventions also facilitate linkages to services in both clinic
and community settings (for example, substance abuse treatment settings)
in support of behaviors and practices that prevent transmission of HIV,
and help clients make plans to obtain these services.
Informed consent: The
legally effective permission of a client or legally authorized
representative (e.g., parent or legal guardian of a minor child) to
undergo a medical test or procedure.
Injection drug user: Someone
who uses a needle to inject drugs into his or her body.
area or region that is the responsibility of a particular governmental
agency. This term usually refers to an area where a state or local
health department monitors HIV prevention activities. (For example,
Jonestown is within the jurisdiction of the Jones County Health
Oral fluid test: A
test using oral mucosal transudate, a serous fluid. To differentiate
this fluid from saliva, an absorbent material is left in the mouth for
several minutes. In an HIV-infected person, oral mucosal transudate is likely to contain HIV
Outcome Monitoring: Efforts
to track the progress of clients or a program based upon outcome
measures set forth in program goals. These measurements assess the
effects of interventions on client outcomes such as knowledge,
attitudes, beliefs, and behavior. Monitoring allows the identification
of changes that occurred, but the intervention may not have been
responsible for the change. This would take a more rigorous approach
(see Outcome evaluation).
Outcome evaluation: Outcome
evaluation involves the assessment of the immediate or direct effects of
a program on the program participants; for example, the degree to which
the program increased knowledge of HIV/AIDS, perceived risk of
infection, and/or decreased intent of engaging in risk behaviors related
to HIV transmission. Outcome evaluation also assesses the extent to
which a program attains its objectives related to intended short- and
long-term change for a target population.
Partner counseling and referral services (PCRS): A
prevention activity that aims to a) provide services to HIV-infected
persons and their sex and needle-sharing partners so they can reduce
their risk for infection or, if already infected, can prevent
transmission to others and b) help partners gain earlier access to
individualized counseling, HIV testing, medical evaluation, treatment,
and other prevention and support services.
Perinatal HIV transmission: Transmission
of HIV from the mother to the fetus or infant during pregnancy,
delivery, or breast-feeding.
Positive test: For
HIV, a specimen sample that is reactive on an initial ELISA test,
repeatedly reactive on a second ELISA run on the same specimen, and
confirmed positive on Western blot or other supplemental test indicates
that the client is infected.
Preliminary Positive: For
HIV, a specimen that is reactive on an initial EIA or rapid test. A
preliminary HIV positive test result must be confirmed by a reactive
test result using Western blot or another supplemental test indicating
that the client is infected.
number or percentage of persons in a given population with a disease or
condition at a given point in time.
Prevention case management (PCM): A
client-centered HIV prevention activity that promotes adoption of HIV
risk-reduction behaviors by clients with multiple, complex problems and
risk-reduction needs. PCM is a hybrid of HIV prevention counseling and
traditional case management that provides intensive, on-going,
individualized prevention counseling, support, and referral to other
Prevention counseling: An
interactive process between client and counselor aimed at reducing risky
sex and needle-sharing behaviors related to HIV acquisition (for HIV
uninfected clients) or transmission (for HIV-infected clients). See also
client-centered HIV prevention counseling and HIV prevention counseling.
Quality assurance: An
ongoing process for ensuring that the CTR program effectively delivers a
consistently high level of service to the clients.
Rapid HIV test: A
test to detect antibodies to HIV that can be collected and processed
within a short interval of time (e.g., approximately 10-60 minutes).
process through which a client is connected with services to address
prevention needs (medical, prevention, and psychosocial support). There
are four types of referral: Provider Referral:
The provider informs the partner and refers him or her to counseling,
testing, and other support services; Patient or
Client Referral: The
HIV-infected client takes full responsibility to inform his or her
partners of their possible exposure to HIV and refers them to
counseling, testing, and other support services; Contract
Referral: If the
HIV-infected client is unable to inform a partner within an agreed-upon
time (e.g., 3 days), the provider has the permission and information
necessary to do so; Dual Referral: The
HIV-infected client and the provider inform the partner(s) together.
Risk assessment: Risk
assessment is a fundamental part of a client-centered HIV prevention
counseling session in which the client is encouraged to identify,
acknowledge, and discuss in detail his or her personal risk for
acquiring or transmitting HIV.
Risk factor or behavior: Behavior
or other factor that places a person at risk for disease. For example,
drug use is a factor that increases risk of acquiring HIV infection; and
factors such as sharing injection drug use equipment, unprotected anal
or vaginal sexual contact, and commercial unprotected sex increase the
risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV.
Risk screening: A
brief evaluation of HIV risk factors, both behavioral and clinical, used
for decisions about who should be recommended HIV counseling and
testing. Risk screening is different from risk assessment.
a test for all persons in a defined population, is a basic, effective
public health tool used to identify an unrecognized condition so that
treatment can be offered before symptoms develop.
probability that a test will be positive when infection or condition is
development of detectable antibodies specific to a particular antigen;
the change of a serologic test result from negative to positive as a
result of antibodies induced by the introduction of antigens or
microorganisms into the host.
probability that a test will be negative when the infection or condition
is not present.
a test because of a person’s clinical symptoms or behavioral risk
factors, has been the predominant paradigm for diagnosing HIV.
Voluntary HIV testing: HIV
testing that is offered free of coercion. With voluntary HIV testing,
participants have the opportunity to accept or refuse HIV testing.
Western blot: A
laboratory test that detects specific antibodies to components of a
virus. Chiefly used as a confirmatory test following repeatedly reactive
EIA tests or rapid tests.