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1 CDC. Monitoring selected national HIV prevention and care objectives by using HIV surveillance data—United States and 6 U.S. dependent areas—2011. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2013;18(No. 5). Published October 2013.

2 CDC. Estimated HIV incidence in the United States, 2007–2010. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2012;17(No. 4). Published December 2012.

3 Smith MK, Rutstein SE, Powers KA, Fidler S, Miller WC, Eron JJ Jr, Cohen MS. The detection and management of early HIV infection: a clinical and public health emergency. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.2013; 63 Suppl 2:S187-99

4 Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, et al. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med 2011;365:493–505.

5 Rietmeijer CA , Kane MS, Simons PZ, et al. Increasing the use of bleach and condoms among injecting drug users in Denver: outcomes of a targeted, community-level HIV prevention program. AIDS 1996;10:291–8.

6 Rhodes F, Malotte CK. HIV risk interventions for active drug users. In: S.Oskamp, S.Thompson, eds. Understanding HIV risk behavior: safer sex and drug use. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1996:297–36.

7 Gibson DR, Lovelle-Drache J, Young M, Hudes ES, Sorensen JL. Effectiveness of brief counseling in reducing HIV risk behavior in injecting drug users: final results of randomized trials of counseling with and without HIV testing. AIDS and Behavior 1999;3:3–12.

8 Doll LS, O'Malley PM, Pershing AL, Darrow WW, Hessol NA, Lifson AR. High-risk sexual behavior and knowledge of HIV antibody status in the San Francisco City Clinic Cohort. Health Psychol 1990;9:253–65.

9 Cleary PD, Van Devanter N, Rogers TF, et al. Behavior changes after notification of HIV infection. Am J Pub Health 1991;81:1586–90.

10 Fox R, Odaka NJ, Brookmeyer R, Polk BF. Effect of HIV antibody disclosure on subsequent sexual activity in homosexual men. AIDS 1987;1:241–6.

11 van Griensven GJP, de Vroome EMM, Tielman RAP, et al. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody knowledge on high-risk sexual behavior with steady and nonsteady sexual partners among homosexual men. Am J Epidemiol 1989;129:596–603.

12 Coates TJ, Morin SF, McKusick L. Behavioral consequences of AIDS antibody testing among gay men [Letter]. JAMA 1987;258:1889.

13 Wenger NS, Kusseling FS, Beck K, Shapiro MF. Sexual behavior of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: the need for intervention. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:1849–54.

14 Desenclos J-C, Papaevangelou G, Ancelle-Park R, for the European Community Study Group on HIV in Injecting Drug Users. Knowledge of HIV serostatus and preventive behaviour among European injecting drug users. AIDS 1993;7:1371–7.

15 Dawson J, Fitzpatrick R, McLean J, Hart G, Boulton M. The HIV test and sexual behavior in a sample of homosexually active men. Soc Sci Med 1991;32:683–8.

16 Otten MW Jr, Zaidi AA, Wroten JE, Witte J, Peterman TA. Changes in sexually transmitted disease rates after HIV testing and posttest counseling, Miami, 1988 to 1989. Am J Pub Health 1993;83:529–33.

17 Quinn TC, Wawer MJ, Sewankambo N, et al. Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. N Eng J Med 2000;342:921–9.

18 CDC. Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States, 2004. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2005;16:16-45.

19 Tao G, Irwin KL, Kassler WJ. Missed opportunities to assess STDs in US adults during routine medical checkups. Am J Prev Med 2000;18:109–14.

20 CDC. HIV prevention practices of primary care physicians—United States, 1992. MMWR 1994;42:988–92.

21 Tiara DA, Safran DG, Seto TB, Rogers WH, Tarlov AR. The relationship between patient income and physician discussion of health risk behaviors. JAMA 1997;278:1412–7.

22 Schwartz JS, Lewis CE, Clancy C, Kinosian MS, Radany MH, Koplan JP. Internists' practices in health promotion and disease prevention. Ann Intern Med 1991;114:46–53.

23 Kassler WJ, Dillon GA, Haley C, et at. On-site, rapid HIV testing with same-day results and counseling. AIDS. 1997;11:1045–51.

24 Horton T, Uniyal A, Smith LV, Curreri S, Kerndt P, Branson B. Feasibility of implementing rapid HIV testing in a community-based setting. National HIV Prevention Conference; Atlanta GA; July 2003. Abstract T2-C1503.

25 Luo W, Masciotra S, Delaney KP, Charurat M, Croxton T, Constantine N, et al. Comparison of HIV oral fluid and plasma antibody results during early infection in a longitudinal Nigerian cohort. J Clin Virol, 2013. 58 Suppl 1: e113-8.

26 Masciotra S, Luo W, Youngpairoj AS, Kennedy MS, Wells S, Ambrose K, et al. Performance of the Alere Determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo Rapid Test with specimens from HIV-1 seroconverters from the US and HIV-2 infected individuals from Ivory Coast. J Clin Virol, 2013.