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NHBS - Featured Publications

Younger and Older IDU

Prevalence of HIV infection and risk behaviors among younger and older injecting drug users in the United States, 2009.

	NHBS SyringeAbstract: This study compared HIV sero-prevalence and risk behaviors between younger and older injecting drug users (IDUs). IDUs aged ≥18 years were interviewed for the 2009 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System. Using GEE regression, we assessed characteristics of younger (18-29 years) and older (≥30 years) IDUs, and factors associated with past 12-month receptive syringe sharing and unprotected sex (vaginal/anal). Of 10,090 participants, 10 % were younger. HIV sero-prevalence was lower among younger than older IDUs (4 vs. 10 %, p = 0.001). Younger IDUs were more likely (p ≤ 0.002) to be non-black race/ethnicity, report higher household income, homelessness, being arrested and to engage in receptive syringe sharing and unprotected sex. In multivariable models, age remained associated (p < 0.001) with receptive syringe sharing (aPR = 1.14, 95 % CI1.07-1.22) and unprotected sex (aPR = 1.10, 95 % CI1.06-1.14). Although younger IDUs had lower HIV prevalence, their behaviors place them at increased risk of HIV infection and could lead to a rapid spread in this susceptible population.

Increase in HIV Testing among MSM

Increases in recent HIV testing among men who have sex with men coincide with CDC's expanded testing initiative.

	NHBS HIV TestAbstract: According to National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system data, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing increased among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men from 2008 to 2011 in cities funded by the Centers for Diseae Control and Prevention's Expanded Testing Initiative, suggesting that focused HIV testing initiatives might have positive effects.

NHBS Special issue of AIDS and Behavior

Using the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System to inform HIV prevention efforts in the United States.

	NHBS Word CloudAbstract: This special issue, published in AIDS and Behavior in 2014, includes 17 articles that illustrate the uses of NHBS data at the national and local level and reflect ongoing efforts to improve the system and methods. As we look to the future, behavioral surveillance remains essential for characterizing and monitoring the burden of HIV infection and sexual and behavioral risks.

HIV care and treatment among MSM

Early Linkage to HIV Care and Antiretroviral Treatment among Men Who Have Sex with Men--20 Cities, United States, 2008 and 2011

	NHBS Linkage To CareAbstract: Early linkage to care and antiretroviral (ARV) treatment are associated with reduced HIV transmission. Male-to-male sexual contact represents the largest HIV transmission category in the United States; men who have sex with men (MSM) are an important focus of care and treatment efforts. With the release of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and expanded HIV treatment guidelines, increases in early linkage to care and ARV treatment are expected. We examined differences in prevalence of early linkage to care and ARV treatment among HIV-positive MSM between 2008 and 2011. Data are from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, which monitors behaviors among populations at high risk of HIV infection in 20 U.S. cities with high AIDS burden. MSM were recruited through venue-based, time-space sampling. Prevalence ratios comparing 2011 to 2008 were estimated using linear mixed models. Early linkage was defined as an HIV clinic visit within 3 months of diagnosis. ARV treatment was defined as use at interview. Prevalence of early linkage to care was 79% (187/236) in 2008 and 83% (241/291) in 2011. In multivariable analysis, prevalence of early linkage did not differ significantly between years overall (P = 0.44). Prevalence of ARV treatment was 69% (790/1,142) in 2008 and 79% (1,049/1,336) in 2011. In multivariable analysis, ARV treatment increased overall (P = 0.0003) and among most sub-groups. Black MSM were less likely than white MSM to report ARV treatment (P = 0.01). While early linkage to care did not increase significantly between 2008 and 2011, ARV treatment increased among most sub-groups. Progress is being made in getting MSM on HIV treatment, but more efforts are needed to decrease disparities in ARV coverage.

Disparities in HIV among MSM

Age-Specific Race and Ethnicity Disparities in HIV Infection and Awareness Among Men Who Have Sex With Men-20 US Cities, 2008-2014.

	NHBS AwarenessAbstract: Over half of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in the United States occur among men who have sex with men (MSM). Among MSM, 16% of estimated new infections in 2010 occurred among black MSM <25 years old. We analyzed National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data on MSM from 20 cities. Poisson models were used to test racial disparities, by age, in HIV prevalence, HIV awareness, and sex behaviors among MSM in 2014. Data from 2008, 2011, and 2014 were used to examine how racial/ethnic disparities changed across time. While black MSM did not report greater sexual risk than other MSM, they were most likely to be infected with HIV and least likely to know it. Among black MSM aged 18-24 years tested in 2014, 26% were HIV positive. Among white MSM aged 18-24 years tested in 2014, 3% were HIV positive. The disparity in HIV prevalence between black and white MSM increased from 2008 to 2014, especially among young MSM. Disparities in HIV prevalence between black and white MSM continue to increase. Black MSM may be infected with HIV at younger ages than other MSM and may benefit from prevention efforts that address the needs of younger men.