Compendium of Evidence-Based HIV Behavioral Interventions
Connect (Couple or Woman-alone)
Minority, inner-city heterosexual couples
Goals of Intervention
- Increase safer sex practices among couples (i.e., increasing condom use, decreasing STD transmission, and reducing number of sex partners
- Increase relationship communication
Connect can be delivered to the couple or the woman alone. The Couples intervention consists of an orientation session and 5 relationship-based sessions delivered to each couple. An initial orientation session is delivered one-on-one to each woman and her partner. The orientation session increases participants’ motivation for attendance, heightens risk awareness, and prepares participants for the intervention. The 5 relationship-based sessions are delivered to intact intimate couples (i.e., a woman and her regular male sex partner). These sessions emphasize the importance of relationship communication, safer sex negotiation and problem solving skills. The sessions also highlight how relationship dynamics are affected by gender roles and how social supports can help maintain safer sex behavior. The intervention delivered to each woman alone is identical in content and session format as the Couples intervention.
- AIDS Risk Reduction Model
- Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Perspective
Six 2-hour sessions delivered over 6 weeks
Hospital outpatient clinic
Female facilitators who were either a Masters in Social Work (MSW) or social work graduate student.
- Goal setting
- Risk reduction supplies (male and female condoms)
An intervention package was developed with funding from CDC’s Replicating Effective Programs (REP) Project. Information about the intervention package can be found at: http://wwwcdc.gov/hiv/prevention/research/rep/packages/connect.html
The original evaluation study was conducted in Bronx, New York between 1997 and 2001. Of the 217 couples who participated in the study, 52% had completed high school or obtained their GED.
- 55% AA; 39% Hisp; 6% Other
- 47% AA couples; 30% Latino couples; 23% mixed ethnic couples
- 50% Female and 50% Male
- Mean age of 38 years
Hospital-based outpatient clinics
Key Intervention Effects
- Couple intervention increased protected vaginal sex acts.
- Woman-Alone intervention reduced unprotected vaginal sex acts and increased protected vaginal sex acts.
Women were considered eligible if they were between 18 and 55 years of age, had a regular male sex partner, involved in a long-term relationship with this partner, had at least 1 episode of unprotected vaginal/anal sex with this partner within the past 30 days, no report of life-threatening abuse by this partner with the past 6 months, and a patient of the outpatient clinic. In addition, women had to know or suspect their partner of having 1 of the following HIV/STD risk criteria during the past 90 days: sexual relations with other men or women, diagnosis or symptoms of an STD, drug injection, or HIV-seropositive.
Couples (or the women) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: Couple intervention (n=81 couples), Woman-alone intervention (n=73 women), or an Education control (n=63 women).
The Education control group involved only the woman taking part in 1 HIV/STD information session that consisted of a video followed by a brief question-and-answer period.
Relevant Outcomes Measured and Follow-up Time
- Sexual risk behaviors during the previous 90 days (including number of unprotected vaginal sex acts with study partner, percent protected vaginal sex acts with study partner, and number of sex partners) were measured at 3 months post-intervention.
- Self-reported number of STD symptoms measured at 3 months post-intervention.
- Couples Intervention:
86% retained at 3 months
- Woman-alone Intervention:
84% retained at 3 months
- Education Control:
79% retained at 3 months
The Couples and Woman-alone interventions each significantly increased the proportion of protected vaginal sex acts compared to the Education control (p < .05 for each comparison). The Woman-alone intervention significantly reduced the number of unprotected vaginal sex acts when compared to the education control (p < .05).
No significant differences were reported between couples receiving the intervention together or women receiving the intervention alone.
- El-Bassel, N., Witte, S. S., Gilbert, L., et al. (2003). The efficacy of a relationship-based HIV/STD prevention program for heterosexual couples. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 963–969.
- El-Bassel, N., Witte, S. S., Gilbert, L., et al. (2001). HIV prevention for intimate couples: A relationship-based model. Families, Systems & Health, 19, 379–395.
Researcher: Dr. Nabila El-Bassel
Social Intervention Group, Columbia University School of Social Work
622 West 113th Street, Box 713
New York, NY 10025