Skip directly to local search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options
CDC Home

PRS Efficacy Criteria for Good-Evidence (Tier II) Medication Adherence (MA) Behavioral Interventions

Intervention Description

  • Clear description of key aspects of the intervention

Quality of Study Design

  • At least a quasi-prospective study design
  • Appropriate comparison arm
  • At least a non-concurrent comparison arm that was implemented within 12 months of the start of the intervention and was similar with respect to population characteristics and setting
  • At least non-random allocation with minimal or moderate selection bias unrelated to the intervention or adherence behavior.

Quality of Study Implementation

  • At least a 1-month post-intervention follow-up assessment for each study arm (with recall referring to post-intervention period only) for interventions that are clearly discrete or at least a 3-months post-initiation follow-up assessment for each study arm for all other types of interventions
  • At least a 60% retention rate (or medical chart recovery) at a single required assessment time point for each study arm

Quality of Study analysis

  • Analysis contrasting intervention arm and an appropriate comparison arm
  • Intent-to-treat analysis:
    • Analysis of participants in study arms as originally allocated
    • Analysis of participants regardless of the level of intervention exposure
  • Comparability of measures:
    • Measures must be identical, including recall, for any repeated measures or change score analyses
    • Baseline measures do not have to be identical, but must be of the same construct as outcome measures, if being used as a covariate in analyses (i.e., adjusted for BL)
  • Analysis based on a 2-sided test and an α =.05 (or more stringent)
  • Analytic sample of at least 40 participants per study arm
  • Non-randomized controlled trials (Non-RCTs) must either demonstrate baseline equivalence or control for baseline differences in outcome variables. Non-RCTs with moderate bias must also demonstrate baseline equivalence or control for baseline differences in demographics and other critical variables.

Top of Page

Strength of Evidence–Significant positive intervention effects

  • Positive and statistically significant (p < .05) intervention effect for at least 1 relevant behavioral outcome measure or 1 relevant biologic outcome measure
    • A positive intervention effect is defined as a statistically significant greater improvement in, or better level of, medication adherence behavioral or biologic outcome in the intervention arm relative to the comparison arm.
    • A relevant behavioral outcome measure may include electronic data monitoring (e.g., MEMs caps), pill count, pharmacy refill, or self-reported adherence. A relevant biologic outcome measure may include a lab test or medical chart recovery of HIV viral load levels.
  • Effect at the follow-up and based on the analyses that meet study design, implementation and analysis criteria

Strength of Evidence–Negative intervention effects

  • No negative and statistically significant (p < .05) intervention effect for any HIV-related behavioral or biologic outcome
    • A negative intervention effect is defined as a statistically significant greater improvement in, or better level of, HIV-related behavioral or biologic outcomes in the comparison arm relative to the intervention arm.
  • No other statistically significant harmful intervention effect
  • For an intervention with a replication evaluation, no significant negative intervention effects in the replication study

Additional Limitations to Evaluate:

  • The totality of the limitations (as described below) cannot introduce considerable bias that substantially reduces the confidence placed on the findings.
  • Examples of limitations to check include:
    • Intervention and comparison arms did not receive similar medication regimens
    • Findings based on too many post-hoc analyses
    • Inconsistent evidence between effects
    • Inconsistent evidence across intervention comparisons within the study
    • Effects only found within a potentially biased subgroup analysis
    • Substantial (>40%) overall missing data (due to attrition and non-attrition such as missing responses)
    • Substantial differential attrition in rates (>10%) or participant characteristics across study arms
    • Differences in characteristics between those lost-to-follow up and those retained in the study
    • Any other notable bias threatening internal or external validity

All criteria must be satisfied for an intervention to be considered as a good-evidence MA intervention

Back to HIV Medication Adherence Efficacy Criteria

Top of Page

 

Get Tested


Find an HIV testing site near you.

Search location, such as: "Atlanta, GA", or "30033".

For more information, please visit gettested.cdc.gov

Please contact GETTESTED-Webmaster@cdc.gov with any comments, suggestions, or concerns.


Syndicate This Content Podcast button Tell us what you think button CDC-INFO
USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30329-4027, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO