Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options
CDC Home

Overview & Outcomes

CDC has been leading a national collaborative effort with public health, industry, and academic representatives from across the United States to develop national guidance to prevent drowning, injuries, and the spread of recreational water illnesses at public swimming pools and spas. This guidance document, called the Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC) will serve as a model and guide for local and state agencies needing to update or implement swimming pool and spa codes, rules, regulations, guidance, laws, or standards governing the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of swimming pools, spas, hot tubs, and other public disinfected aquatic facilities. CDC will also work with national partners to periodically update the MAHC to ensure it stays current with the latest industry advances and public health findings.

  1. US Census Bureau. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012. Arts, Recreation, and Travel: Participation in Selected Sports Activities 2009 [PDF - 2 pages] 
  2. CDC. Drowning – United States, 2005-2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61(19):344-347.
  3. CDC. Ten leading causes of injury deaths by age group highlighting unintentional injury deaths, United States – 2010 [PDF - 1 page].
  4. Mack KA. Swimming related injuries among children age 0-9 years treated in emergency departments, NEISS-AIP 2001-2006. Presented at American Public Health Association, Nov. 7-11, 2009.
  5. CDC. Pool chemical–associated health events in public and residential settings — United States, 1983–2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58(18):489-93.
  6. CDC. Acute illness and injury from swimming pool disinfectants and other chemicals — United States, 2002-2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011:60(39):1343-1347.
  7. Hlavsa MC, Roberts VA, Kahler AM, Hilborn ED, Wade TJ, Backer LC, Yoder, JS. Recreational water–associated disease outbreaks — United States, 2009–2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(1):6-10.
  8. Yoder JS, Beach MJ. Cryptosporidium surveillance and risk factors in the United States. Exp Parasitol. 2010;124:31-9.
  9. CDC. Violations identified from routine swimming pool inspections — Selected states and counties, United States, 2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(19):582-7.
  10. CDC. Surveillance data from public spa inspections — United States, May-September 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004;53(25):553-5.
  11. EPA. Beaches. 2013.
Contact Us:
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    1600 Clifton Rd
    Atlanta, GA 30333
  • 800-CDC-INFO
    TTY: (888) 232-6348
  • Contact CDC–INFO The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO
A-Z Index
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #