CDC Global HIV/AIDS Milestones:
On the Path to an AIDS-Free Generation
- CDC advances toward AIDS-free generation goal, focuses countries on combination prevention strategy.
- CDC transfers Track 1.0 Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) programs in 13 countries to Ministries of Health and indigenous organizations.
- CDC collaborates with WHO on Programmatic Update for preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission.
- CDC, WHO, and other partners launch first-ever African Society for Laboratory Medicine.
- CDC leads groundbreaking economic and epidemic analyses that support U.S. policy for scaling up PEPFAR goals.
- President Obama announces accelerated U.S. goals for “the beginning of the end of AIDS.”
- Secretary of State Clinton issues call-to-action to create an AIDS-free generation.
- Study (HPTN 052) by U.S. NIH shows treatment of HIV+ people with antiretroviral drugs reduces transmission of HIV (treatment is prevention).
- CDC and WHO develop comprehensive laboratory training package on HIV drug resistance genotyping.
- CDC completes 6-year multicountry study of injection safety, trains 115,000 trainers and health care workers.
- CDC completes multicountry study on preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission; highlights need for country- and site-specific interventions.
- CDC and WHO-AFRO establish accreditation process to build African laboratory capacity. CDC leads development of toolkit to facilitate accreditation.
- President Obama launches Global Health Initiative; PEPFAR is a core component.
- CDC develops standards for high- quality HIV drug-resistance testing (with WHO) and reduces cost of dried blood spot-based test by 50%.
- CDC and country partners establish African Centre for Integrated Laboratory Training; trains more than 300 participants from over 20 countries.
- CDC and UNAIDS launch Global Monitoring & Evaluation Information web portal, a key resource for more than 1,200 registered members from 124 countries.
- U.S. Congress reauthorizes PEPFAR for an additional 5 years at up to $48 billion.
- CDC initiates quality evaluation of new HIV rapid test kits with USAID.
- CDC supports implementation of Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey to build surveillance data systems .
- CDC conducts study in Uganda on cost effectiveness of different HIV testing and counseling strategies.
- CDC develops HIV rapid test training program, trains hundreds of master trainers and increases test accessibility.
- CDC leads multicountry study of facility-based HIV treatment and care costs; results inform PEPFAR scale-up.
- CDC develops methodology to evaluate outcomes of national antiretroviral therapy programs.
- CDC develops HIV care and support guidance for PEPFAR, includes clinical preventive services and psychosocial support.
- CDC develops basic care package to minimize opportunistic infections in HIV+ people; more than 500 delivered to 9 African countries.
- CDC and University of California, San Francisco develop data synthesis methods to build country capacity to understand HIV epidemic.
- CDC validates and rolls-out rapid HIV tests and dried blood spot PCR tests, enables faster response to epidemic.
- CDC launches Early Infant (HIV) Diagnosis program using inexpensive dried blood spot tests that are stable in harsh conditions.
- CDC and Health Resources and Services Administration launch Track 1.0 Antiretroviral Treatment Program with Ministries of Health in 13 countries.
- CDC pilots integration of routine HIV testing into antenatal health care settings.
- CDC supports development of first Demographic and health Survey in developing countries to link HIV results with demographic and behavioral factors.
- CDC uses BED HIV-1 enzyme immunoassay to estimate HIV incidence in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, enabling identification of high risk groups.
- President Bush announces U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR); CDC has key role in PEPFAR implementation.
- CDC launches antiretroviral drug regimen in Kenya, laying foundation for widespread scale-up in resource-constrained countries.
- CDC and WHO develop guidelines for evaluating HIV testing technologies in Africa.
- President George W. Bush announces U.S. International Mother and Child HIV Prevention Initiative.
- CDC establishes standards for HIV testing and laboratory quality assurance.
- CDC launches programs on prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission.
- CDC establishes its Global AIDS Program.
- U.S. and UN Security Councils each declare HIV/AIDS a security threat.
- U.S. Congress enacts Global AIDS and Tuberculosis Relief Act of 2000, authorizing up to $600 million for U.S. global efforts.
- CDC provides critical technical support for LIFE initiative launched by President Clinton.
- CDC field stations demonstrate effectiveness of short-course zidovudine to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission and effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing deaths and hospitalizations in HIV-infected TB patients.
- President Clinton launches LIFE Initiative (Leadership and Investment in Fighting an Epidemic) expanding efforts to combat AIDS in Africa.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issues first national guidelines for use of antiretroviral therapy in adults. (read updated guidelines)
- Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) established.
- CDC issues first guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections in HIV+ people.
- CDC publishes guidelines for preventing HIV transmission through transplantation of human tissue and organs.
- CDC expands case definition of AIDS to reflect fuller spectrum of disease.
- CDC recommends restrictions on the practice of HIV+ health care workers; Congress enacts law requiring states to take similar action.
- CDC issues first guidelines for preventing P.carinii pneumonia (PCP), a major cause of illness and death in HIV+ people.
- CDC sponsors field station in Cote d’Ivoire, Project RETRO-CI, to study epidemiology of HIV virus and to describe HIV epidemic in West Africa.
- WHO declares first World AIDS Day on December 1.
- WHO launches Global Programme on AIDS.
- First International AIDS Conference held in Atlanta, a joint effort of Department of Health and Human Services and World Health Organization (WHO).
- CDC conducts landmark HIV/AIDS epidemiologic studies in central Africa as key partner in Project SIDA (French for AIDS Project).
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolated by Luc Montagnier (Pasteur Institute) and Robert Gallo (U.S. National Cancer Institute).
- CDC identifies all major routes of HIV transmission – ruling out transmission by casual contact, food, water, air, or environmental surfaces.
- CDC formally establishes the term Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
- CDC reports first cases of rare pneumonia in young gay men – later determined to be AIDS-related – in June 5 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). This marks the official beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
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