Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options
CDC Home

Recommended Readings

Print-friendly version of this page [5 pages]

There are numerous articles about antibiotic resistance, appropriate antibiotic use, and other related issues. However, the Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work campaign has developed an abbreviated list of recommended readings to introduce people to the topic of appropriate antibiotic use.

Antibiotic Resistance Efforts

  • Emmer CL, Besser RE: Combating antimicrobial resistance: intervention programs to promote appropriate antibiotic use. Infect Med 19:160-173, 2002.
  • Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance: A public health action plan to combat antimicrobial resistance [114 KB, 46 pages]
  • Friedman, CR, Whitney, CG: It's time for a change in practice: Reducing antibiotic use can Alter antibiotic resistance. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 197:1082-1083, 2008.
  • Stephenson J: CDC campaign targets antimicrobial resistance in hospitals. JAMA 287:23512352, 2002.
  • Weissman J, Besser RE: Promoting appropriate antibiotic use for pediatric patients: a social ecological framework. Sem Pediat Infect Dis 15:41-51, 2004.
  • Whitney CG, Farley MM, Hadler J, et al: Decline in invasive Pneumococcal disease after introduction of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. New Engl J Med 348:1737-1746, 2003.

Top of Page

Antibiotic Use and Resistance

  • Bronzwaer SLAM, Cars O, Buchholz U, et al: A European study on the relationships between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance. Emerg Infect Dis 8:278-282, 2002.
  • Infectious Diseases Society of America: Bad bugs, no drugs: As antibiotic discovery stagnates…a public health crisis brews [4 MB, 29 pages]. Accessed July 22, 2004.
  • Levin BR: Minimizing potential resistance: a population dynamics view. Clin Infect Dis 33:S161S169, 2001.
  • Lipsitch M, Samore MH: Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance: a population perspective. Emerg Infect Dis 8:347-354, 2002.
  • McGowan JE: Antimicrobial resistance in hospital organisms and its relationship to antibiotic use. Rev Infect Dis 5:1033-1048, 1983.
  • Reichler MR, Allphin AA, Breiman RF, et al: The spread of multiply resistant Streptococcus pneumonia at a day care center in Ohio. J Infect Dis 166:1346-1353, 1992.

Top of Page

Prescribing Data

  • Besser RE: Antimicrobial prescribing on the United States: good news, bad news. Annals Int Med 137:605-606, 2003.
  • Bauchner H, Besser RE: Promoting the appropriate use of oral antibiotics: there is some very good news. Pediatrics 111:668-670, 2003.
  • CDC: Office-related antibiotic prescribing for persons aged ≤14 years — United States, 1993—1994 to 2007—2008. MMWR 60:1153-6, 2011.
  • Finkelstein JA, Stille C, Nordin J, et al: Reduction in antibiotic use among US children, 1996-2000. Pediatrics 112:620-627, 2003.
  • Grijalva CG, Nuorti JP, Griffin M: Antibiotic prescription rates for acute respiratory tract infections in US ambulatory settings. JAMA 302:758-766, 2009.
  • Gonzales R, Malone DC, Maselli JH, et al: Excessive antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 33:757-762, 2001.
  • Gonzales R, Steiner JF, Sande MA: Antibiotic prescribing for adults with colds, upper respiratory tract infections, and bronchitis by ambulatory care physicians. JAMA 278:901-904, 1997.
  • Linder JA, Bates DW, Lee, GM, Finkelstein JA: Antibiotic treatment of children with sore throat. JAMA 294:2315-2322, 2005.
  • Linder JA, Huang ES, Steinman MA, Gonzales R, Stafford RS: Fluoroquinolone prescribing in the United States: 1995-2002. Am J Med 118:259-268, 2005.
  • Mangione-Smith R, Wong L, Elliott MN, McDonald L, Roski J: Measuring the quality of antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory infections and bronchitis in 5 US health plans. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:751-757, 2005.
  • McCaig LF, Besser RE, Hughes JM: Antimicrobial drug prescriptions in ambulatory care settings, United States, 1992-2000. Emerg Infect Dis 9:432-437, 2003.
  • McCaig LF, Besser RE, Hughes JM: Trends in antimicrobial prescribing rates for children and adolescents. JAMA 287:3096-3102, 2002.
  • McCaig LF, Hughes JM: Trends in antimicrobial drug prescribing among office-based physicians in the United States. JAMA 273:214-219, 1995.
  • Nash DR, Harman J, Wald ER et al: Antibiotic prescribing by primary care physicians for children with upper respiratory tract infections. Arch Pediat Adol Med 156: 1114-1119, 2002.
  • Nyquist AC, Gonzales R, Steiner JF, et al: Antibiotic prescribing for children with colds, upper respiratory tract infections, and bronchitis. JAMA 279:875-877, 1998.
  • Pichichero ME: Dynamics of antibiotic prescribing for children. JAMA 287:3133-3135, 2002.
  • Shapiro, DJ, Hicks LA, Pavia AT, et al: Antibiotic prescribing for adults in ambulatory care in the USA, 2007-09. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 Jul 25. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Steinman MA, Gonzales R, Linder JA, et al: Changing use of antibiotics in community-based outpatient practice, 1991-1999. Annals Int Med 138:525-534, 2003.
  • Steinman MA, Landefeld CS, Gonzales R: Predictors of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in adult primary care. JAMA 289:719-725, 2003.

Top of Page

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Studies

  • Avorn J, Solomon DH: Cultural and economic factors that (mis)shape antibiotic use: the nonpharmacologic basis of therapeutics. Annals Int Med 133:128-135, 2000.
  • Barden LS, Dowell SF, Schwartz B, et al: Current attitudes regarding use of antimicrobial agents: results from physicians’ and parents’ focus group discussions. Clin Pediatr37:665-672, 1998.
  • Bauchner H, Pelton SI, Klein JO: Parents, physicians, and antibiotic use. Pediatrics 103:395-401, 1999.
  • Belongia EA, Naimi TS, Gale GM, et al: Antibiotic use and upper respiratory infections: a survey of knowledge, attitudes, and experience in Wisconsin and Minnesota. Prev Med 34:346-352, 2002.
  • Friedman JF, Lee GM, Kleinman KP, Finkelstein JA: Child care center policies and practice for management of ill children. Ambul Pediatr 4:455-460, 2004.
  • Larson E, Lin SX, Gomez-Duarte C: Antibiotic use in Hispanic households, New York City. Emerg Infect Dis 9:1096-1102, 2003.
  • Mangione-Smith R, Elliott MN, Stivers T, et al: Racial/ethnic variation in parent expectations for antibiotics: implications for public health campaign. Pediatrics 113:e385-e394, 2004.
  • Mangione-Smith R, McGlynn EA, Elliott MN, et al: The relationship between perceived parental expectations and pediatrician antimicrobial prescribing behavior. Pediatrics 103:711-718, 1999.
  • Srinivasan A, Song X, Richards A, et al: A survey of knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of house staff physicians from various specialties concerning antimicrobial use and resistance. Arch Int Med 164:1451-1456, 2004.
  • Stivers T, Mangione-Smith R, Elliott MN, et al: Why do physicians think parents expect antibiotics? What parents report vs what physicians believe. Fam Prac 52:140-147, 2003.
  • Vanden Eng J, Marcus R, Hadler JL, et al: Consumer attitudes and use of antibiotics. Emerg Infect Dis 9:1128-1135, 2003.
  • White D, Mori A, Zweifler J, et al: Parental satisfaction without antibiotics. The Nurse Practitioner35: 40-42, 2010.

Top of Page

Community Level Interventions

  • Belongia EA, Knobloch MJ, Kieke BA, Davis JP, Janette C, Besser RE: Impact of statewide program to promote appropriate antimicrobial drug use. Emerg Infect Dis 11:912-920, 2005.
  • Belongia EA, Sullivan BJ, Chyou PH, et al: A community intervention trial to promote judicious antibiotic use and reduce penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneuimoniae carriage in children. Pediatrics 108:575-583, 2001.
  • Finkelstein JA, Davis RL, Dowell SF, et al: Reducing antibiotic use in children: a randomized trial in 12 practices. Pediatrics 108:1-7, 2001.
  • Finkelstein JA, Huang SS, Kleinman K, et al: Impact of a 16-community trial to promote judicious antibiotic use in Massachusetts. Pediatrics 121:e15-23, 2008.
  • Gonzales R, Steiner JF, Lum A, et al: Decreasing antibiotic use in ambulatory practice: impact of a multidimensional intervention on the treatment of uncomplicated acute bronchitis in adults. JAMA 281:1512-1519, 1999.
  • Hennessy TW, Petersen KM, Bruden D, et al: Changes in antibiotic-prescribing practices and carriage of penicillin-resistant Steptococcus pneumoniae: a controlled intervention trial in rural Alaska. Clin Infect Dis 34:1543-1550, 2002.
  • Kiang KM, Kieke BA, Como-Sabetti K, Lynfield E, Besser RE, Belongia EA: Clinician knowledge and beliefs after statewide program to promote appropriate antimicrobial drug use. Emerg Infect Dis 11:904-911, 2005.
  • Metlay JP, Camargo Jr CA, MacKenzie TD,et al: Randomized trial of a multidimensional educational intervention to improve antibiotic use for adults with acute respiratory infections managed in the emergency department. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 50:221-30, 2007.
  • Perz JF, Craig AS, Coffey CS, et al: Changes in antibiotic prescribing for children after a community-wide campaign. JAMA 287:3103-3109, 2002.
  • Taylor JA, Kwan-Gett TSC, McMahon EM: Effectiveness of an educational intervention in modifying parental attitudes about antibiotic usage in children. Pediatrics 111:e548-e555, 2003.

Top of Page


  • American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, and American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Otitis Media With Effusion: Otitis media with effusion. Pediatrics 113:1412-1429, 2004.
  • Cooper RJ, Hoffman JR, Bartlett JG, et al: Principles of appropriate antibiotic use for acute pharyngitis in adults: background. Annals Int Med 134:509-517, 2001.
  • Dowell SF, Marcy SM, Phillips WR, et al: Otitis media—principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents. Pediatrics 101:165-171, 1998.
  • Dowell SF, Marcy SM, Phillips WR, et al: Principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents for pediatric upper respiratory tract infections. Pediatrics 101:163-165, 1998.
  • Gonzales R, Bartlett JG, Besser RE, et al: Principles of appropriate antibiotic use for treatment of acute respiratory tract infections in adults: background, specific aims, and methods. Annals Int Med 134:479-486, 2001.
  • Gonzales R, Bartlett JG, Besser RE, et al: Principles of appropriate antibiotic use for treatment of nonspecific upper respiratory tract infections in adults: background. Annals Int Med 34:490-494, 2001.
  • Gonzales R, Bartlett JG, Besser RE, et al: Principles of appropriate antibiotic use for treatment of uncomplicated acute bronchitis: background. Annals Int Med 134:521-529, 2001.
  • Hickner JM, Bartlett JG, Besser RE, et al: Principles of appropriate antibiotic use for acute rhinosinusitis in adults: background. Annals Int Med 134:498-505, 2001.
  • Irwin RS, Baumann MH, Bolser DC, et al: Diagnosis and management of cough: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 1S-292S, 2006.
  • O'Brien KL, Dowell SF, Schwartz B, et al: Acute sinusitis--principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents. Pediatrics 101:174-177, 1998.
  • O'Brien KL, Dowell SF, Schwartz B, et al: Cough illness/bronchitis--principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents. Pediatrics 101:178-181, 1998.
  • Rosenstein N, Phillips WR, Gerber MA, et al: The common cold--principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents. Pediatrics 101:181-184, 1998.
  • Schwartz B, Marcy SM, Phillips WR, et al: Pharyngitis--principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents. Pediatrics 101:171-174, 1998.
  • Sinus and Allergy Health Partnership: Antimicrobial treatment guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis: Executive summary. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130:1-45, 2004.
  • Subcommittee on Management of Acute Otitis Media: Diagnosis and management of acute otitis media.Pediatrics 113:1451-1465, 2004.

Top of Page

Adverse Drug Events

  • Budnitz DS, Pollock DA; Weidenbach, KN et al: National surveillance of emergency department visits for outpatient adverse drug events. JAMA 296:1858-1866, 2006.
  • Shehab N, Patel PR , Srinivasan A, Budnitz DS: Emergency department visits for anitbiotic-associated adverse events. Clin Infect Dis 47, 2008.

Top of Page

Images and logos on this website which are trademarked/copyrighted or used with permission of the trademark/copyright or logo holder are not in the public domain. These images and logos have been licensed for or used with permission in the materials provided on this website. The materials in the form presented on this website may be used without seeking further permission. Any other use of trademarked/copyrighted images or logos requires permission from the trademark/copyright holder...more

External Web Site Policy This graphic notice means that you are leaving an HHS Web site. For more information, please see the Exit Notification and Disclaimer policy.

Contact Us:
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    1600 Clifton Rd
    Atlanta, GA 30333
  • 800-CDC-INFO
    TTY: (888) 232-6348
    Contact CDC-INFO The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30329-4027, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO
A-Z Index
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #