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Recommended Readings

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There are numerous articles about antibiotic resistance, appropriate antibiotic use, and other related issues. However, the Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work campaign has developed an abbreviated list of recommended readings to introduce people to the topic of appropriate antibiotic use.

Antibiotic Resistance Efforts

  • Emmer CL, Besser RE: Combating antimicrobial resistance: intervention programs to promote appropriate antibiotic use. Infect Med 19:160-173, 2002.
  • Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance: A public health action plan to combat antimicrobial resistance [114 KB, 46 pages]
  • Friedman, CR, Whitney, CG: It's time for a change in practice: Reducing antibiotic use can Alter antibiotic resistance. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 197:1082-1083, 2008.
  • Stephenson J: CDC campaign targets antimicrobial resistance in hospitals. JAMA 287:23512352, 2002.
  • Weissman J, Besser RE: Promoting appropriate antibiotic use for pediatric patients: a social ecological framework. Sem Pediat Infect Dis 15:41-51, 2004.
  • Whitney CG, Farley MM, Hadler J, et al: Decline in invasive Pneumococcal disease after introduction of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. New Engl J Med 348:1737-1746, 2003.

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Antibiotic Use and Resistance

  • Bronzwaer SLAM, Cars O, Buchholz U, et al: A European study on the relationships between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance. Emerg Infect Dis 8:278-282, 2002.
  • Infectious Diseases Society of America: Bad bugs, no drugs: As antibiotic discovery stagnates…a public health crisis brews [4 MB, 29 pages]. Accessed July 22, 2004.
  • Levin BR: Minimizing potential resistance: a population dynamics view. Clin Infect Dis 33:S161S169, 2001.
  • Lipsitch M, Samore MH: Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance: a population perspective. Emerg Infect Dis 8:347-354, 2002.
  • McGowan JE: Antimicrobial resistance in hospital organisms and its relationship to antibiotic use. Rev Infect Dis 5:1033-1048, 1983.
  • Reichler MR, Allphin AA, Breiman RF, et al: The spread of multiply resistant Streptococcus pneumonia at a day care center in Ohio. J Infect Dis 166:1346-1353, 1992.

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Prescribing Data

  • Besser RE: Antimicrobial prescribing on the United States: good news, bad news. Annals Int Med 137:605-606, 2003.
  • Bauchner H, Besser RE: Promoting the appropriate use of oral antibiotics: there is some very good news. Pediatrics 111:668-670, 2003.
  • CDC: Office-related antibiotic prescribing for persons aged ≤14 years — United States, 1993—1994 to 2007—2008. MMWR 60:1153-6, 2011.
  • Finkelstein JA, Stille C, Nordin J, et al: Reduction in antibiotic use among US children, 1996-2000. Pediatrics 112:620-627, 2003.
  • Grijalva CG, Nuorti JP, Griffin M: Antibiotic prescription rates for acute respiratory tract infections in US ambulatory settings. JAMA 302:758-766, 2009.
  • Gonzales R, Malone DC, Maselli JH, et al: Excessive antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 33:757-762, 2001.
  • Gonzales R, Steiner JF, Sande MA: Antibiotic prescribing for adults with colds, upper respiratory tract infections, and bronchitis by ambulatory care physicians. JAMA 278:901-904, 1997.
  • Linder JA, Bates DW, Lee, GM, Finkelstein JA: Antibiotic treatment of children with sore throat. JAMA 294:2315-2322, 2005.
  • Linder JA, Huang ES, Steinman MA, Gonzales R, Stafford RS: Fluoroquinolone prescribing in the United States: 1995-2002. Am J Med 118:259-268, 2005.
  • Mangione-Smith R, Wong L, Elliott MN, McDonald L, Roski J: Measuring the quality of antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory infections and bronchitis in 5 US health plans. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:751-757, 2005.
  • McCaig LF, Besser RE, Hughes JM: Antimicrobial drug prescriptions in ambulatory care settings, United States, 1992-2000. Emerg Infect Dis 9:432-437, 2003.
  • McCaig LF, Besser RE, Hughes JM: Trends in antimicrobial prescribing rates for children and adolescents. JAMA 287:3096-3102, 2002.
  • McCaig LF, Hughes JM: Trends in antimicrobial drug prescribing among office-based physicians in the United States. JAMA 273:214-219, 1995.
  • Nash DR, Harman J, Wald ER et al: Antibiotic prescribing by primary care physicians for children with upper respiratory tract infections. Arch Pediat Adol Med 156: 1114-1119, 2002.
  • Nyquist AC, Gonzales R, Steiner JF, et al: Antibiotic prescribing for children with colds, upper respiratory tract infections, and bronchitis. JAMA 279:875-877, 1998.
  • Pichichero ME: Dynamics of antibiotic prescribing for children. JAMA 287:3133-3135, 2002.
  • Shapiro, DJ, Hicks LA, Pavia AT, et al: Antibiotic prescribing for adults in ambulatory care in the USA, 2007-09. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 Jul 25. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Steinman MA, Gonzales R, Linder JA, et al: Changing use of antibiotics in community-based outpatient practice, 1991-1999. Annals Int Med 138:525-534, 2003.
  • Steinman MA, Landefeld CS, Gonzales R: Predictors of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in adult primary care. JAMA 289:719-725, 2003.

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Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Studies

  • Avorn J, Solomon DH: Cultural and economic factors that (mis)shape antibiotic use: the nonpharmacologic basis of therapeutics. Annals Int Med 133:128-135, 2000.
  • Barden LS, Dowell SF, Schwartz B, et al: Current attitudes regarding use of antimicrobial agents: results from physicians’ and parents’ focus group discussions. Clin Pediatr37:665-672, 1998.
  • Bauchner H, Pelton SI, Klein JO: Parents, physicians, and antibiotic use. Pediatrics 103:395-401, 1999.
  • Belongia EA, Naimi TS, Gale GM, et al: Antibiotic use and upper respiratory infections: a survey of knowledge, attitudes, and experience in Wisconsin and Minnesota. Prev Med 34:346-352, 2002.
  • Friedman JF, Lee GM, Kleinman KP, Finkelstein JA: Child care center policies and practice for management of ill children. Ambul Pediatr 4:455-460, 2004.
  • Larson E, Lin SX, Gomez-Duarte C: Antibiotic use in Hispanic households, New York City. Emerg Infect Dis 9:1096-1102, 2003.
  • Mangione-Smith R, Elliott MN, Stivers T, et al: Racial/ethnic variation in parent expectations for antibiotics: implications for public health campaign. Pediatrics 113:e385-e394, 2004.
  • Mangione-Smith R, McGlynn EA, Elliott MN, et al: The relationship between perceived parental expectations and pediatrician antimicrobial prescribing behavior. Pediatrics 103:711-718, 1999.
  • Srinivasan A, Song X, Richards A, et al: A survey of knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of house staff physicians from various specialties concerning antimicrobial use and resistance. Arch Int Med 164:1451-1456, 2004.
  • Stivers T, Mangione-Smith R, Elliott MN, et al: Why do physicians think parents expect antibiotics? What parents report vs what physicians believe. Fam Prac 52:140-147, 2003.
  • Vanden Eng J, Marcus R, Hadler JL, et al: Consumer attitudes and use of antibiotics. Emerg Infect Dis 9:1128-1135, 2003.
  • White D, Mori A, Zweifler J, et al: Parental satisfaction without antibiotics. The Nurse Practitioner35: 40-42, 2010.

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Community Level Interventions

  • Belongia EA, Knobloch MJ, Kieke BA, Davis JP, Janette C, Besser RE: Impact of statewide program to promote appropriate antimicrobial drug use. Emerg Infect Dis 11:912-920, 2005.
  • Belongia EA, Sullivan BJ, Chyou PH, et al: A community intervention trial to promote judicious antibiotic use and reduce penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneuimoniae carriage in children. Pediatrics 108:575-583, 2001.
  • Finkelstein JA, Davis RL, Dowell SF, et al: Reducing antibiotic use in children: a randomized trial in 12 practices. Pediatrics 108:1-7, 2001.
  • Finkelstein JA, Huang SS, Kleinman K, et al: Impact of a 16-community trial to promote judicious antibiotic use in Massachusetts. Pediatrics 121:e15-23, 2008.
  • Gonzales R, Steiner JF, Lum A, et al: Decreasing antibiotic use in ambulatory practice: impact of a multidimensional intervention on the treatment of uncomplicated acute bronchitis in adults. JAMA 281:1512-1519, 1999.
  • Hennessy TW, Petersen KM, Bruden D, et al: Changes in antibiotic-prescribing practices and carriage of penicillin-resistant Steptococcus pneumoniae: a controlled intervention trial in rural Alaska. Clin Infect Dis 34:1543-1550, 2002.
  • Kiang KM, Kieke BA, Como-Sabetti K, Lynfield E, Besser RE, Belongia EA: Clinician knowledge and beliefs after statewide program to promote appropriate antimicrobial drug use. Emerg Infect Dis 11:904-911, 2005.
  • Metlay JP, Camargo Jr CA, MacKenzie TD,et al: Randomized trial of a multidimensional educational intervention to improve antibiotic use for adults with acute respiratory infections managed in the emergency department. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 50:221-30, 2007.
  • Perz JF, Craig AS, Coffey CS, et al: Changes in antibiotic prescribing for children after a community-wide campaign. JAMA 287:3103-3109, 2002.
  • Taylor JA, Kwan-Gett TSC, McMahon EM: Effectiveness of an educational intervention in modifying parental attitudes about antibiotic usage in children. Pediatrics 111:e548-e555, 2003.

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Principles/Guidelines

  • American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, and American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Otitis Media With Effusion: Otitis media with effusion. Pediatrics 113:1412-1429, 2004.
  • Cooper RJ, Hoffman JR, Bartlett JG, et al: Principles of appropriate antibiotic use for acute pharyngitis in adults: background. Annals Int Med 134:509-517, 2001.
  • Dowell SF, Marcy SM, Phillips WR, et al: Otitis media—principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents. Pediatrics 101:165-171, 1998.
  • Dowell SF, Marcy SM, Phillips WR, et al: Principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents for pediatric upper respiratory tract infections. Pediatrics 101:163-165, 1998.
  • Gonzales R, Bartlett JG, Besser RE, et al: Principles of appropriate antibiotic use for treatment of acute respiratory tract infections in adults: background, specific aims, and methods. Annals Int Med 134:479-486, 2001.
  • Gonzales R, Bartlett JG, Besser RE, et al: Principles of appropriate antibiotic use for treatment of nonspecific upper respiratory tract infections in adults: background. Annals Int Med 34:490-494, 2001.
  • Gonzales R, Bartlett JG, Besser RE, et al: Principles of appropriate antibiotic use for treatment of uncomplicated acute bronchitis: background. Annals Int Med 134:521-529, 2001.
  • Hickner JM, Bartlett JG, Besser RE, et al: Principles of appropriate antibiotic use for acute rhinosinusitis in adults: background. Annals Int Med 134:498-505, 2001.
  • Irwin RS, Baumann MH, Bolser DC, et al: Diagnosis and management of cough: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 1S-292S, 2006.
  • O'Brien KL, Dowell SF, Schwartz B, et al: Acute sinusitis--principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents. Pediatrics 101:174-177, 1998.
  • O'Brien KL, Dowell SF, Schwartz B, et al: Cough illness/bronchitis--principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents. Pediatrics 101:178-181, 1998.
  • Rosenstein N, Phillips WR, Gerber MA, et al: The common cold--principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents. Pediatrics 101:181-184, 1998.
  • Schwartz B, Marcy SM, Phillips WR, et al: Pharyngitis--principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents. Pediatrics 101:171-174, 1998.
  • Sinus and Allergy Health Partnership: Antimicrobial treatment guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis: Executive summary. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130:1-45, 2004.
  • Subcommittee on Management of Acute Otitis Media: Diagnosis and management of acute otitis media.Pediatrics 113:1451-1465, 2004.

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Adverse Drug Events

  • Budnitz DS, Pollock DA; Weidenbach, KN et al: National surveillance of emergency department visits for outpatient adverse drug events. JAMA 296:1858-1866, 2006.
  • Shehab N, Patel PR , Srinivasan A, Budnitz DS: Emergency department visits for anitbiotic-associated adverse events. Clin Infect Dis 47, 2008.

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