Provides a brief overview of fluoridating water to prevent tooth
Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control
Dental Caries in the United States
This summary guidance explains how to achieve protection from tooth decay
throughout life, while reducing the chances of developing dental fluorosis.
Community Water Fluoridation: Questions and
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is proposing a change to
the recommendation for the optimal fluoride level in drinking water to
prevent tooth decay.
Cost Savings of Community Water Fluoridation
Two studies conducted by CDC examined the cost-effectiveness of
community water fluoridation and the wide benefit of fluoridated water
in states that are highly fluoridated to those people living in
nonfluoridated communities. Together, the studies continue to show that
widespread community water fluoridation prevents cavities and saves
money, both for families and the health care system.
Preventing Dental Caries Through Community Programs
Describes the reduction in tooth decay attributed to community water
fluoridation and school-based dental sealant programs and provides
examples of states that have implemented effective prevention
Lack of Association Between Daily
Temperature and Children's Water Intake in the United States
The objective of this report is to describe the effect of maximum daily
temperature on total water intake among children aged 1 to 10 years during
Bottled Water and Fluoride
Some bottled waters contain fluoride, and some do not. This fact sheet covers common questions about bottled water and
Well Water and Fluoride FAQs
Answers common questions on fluoride in private well water.
The proper amount of fluoride helps prevent and control dental caries (tooth
decay). Fluoride consumed during tooth development can also produce a range
of changes in the enamel surface of the tooth. These changes are broadly
termed dental fluorosis. The most common forms of dental fluorosis appear as
barely noticeable, white lacy markings on the tooth surface. Fluorosis is a
condition that occurs only when teeth are forming, up to about age 8.
Infant Formula and Fluorosis
Answers common questions about infant formula and fluoride within the
context of preventing tooth decay.
Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program
Laboratory proficiency testing is important to verify the accuracy
of measuring fluoride in drinking water by state reference
Fluorosilicic acid is the most commonly used additive for water
fluoridation, followed by two dry additives—sodium fluorosilicate and sodium
fluoride. The American Water Works Association (AWWA) prepares standards for
the manufacturing, quality, and verification of the fluoride additives. The
American National Standards Institute prepares standards for documenting the purity of
Corrosion of Pipes
Water fluoridation will not increase water corrosion or cause lead to leach
(dissolve) from pipes and household plumbing fixtures.
Reporting System (WFRS)
The WFRS helps states manage the quality of their water fluoridation
programs. WFRS information is also used for national reports that describe
the percentage of the U.S. population on community water systems receiving
optimally fluoridated drinking water. The system was developed by the CDC in
partnership with the Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors.
Calculating Fluoridation Statistics
A state’s fluoridation status is an indicator of progress in promoting oral
health; consequently, it is important to document how this status is
Temporary Shortages of Fluoridation Additives: FAQs
Adjusting the fluoride content of water is a safe and healthy practice
that provides significant oral health benefits for a community. Although
shortages of fluoride additives for water fluoridation are infrequent, there
have been periods when shortages have occurred. FAQs address common
questions to CDC in the event of a shortage.
Page last reviewed: October
Page last modified: October 22, 2012
Division of Oral Health,
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and