Surgeons General Statements on Community Water Fluoridation
All residents of a community can enjoy community water fluoridation’s protective benefits simply by consuming foods and beverages prepared with fluoridated water. A person’s income level or ability to receive routine dental care is not a barrier to receiving its health benefits.
Provides general information on the history and benefits of community water fluoridation
|Selected Reports and Journal Articles|
The Halo Effect: Quantifying the diffused
benefit from water fluoridation in the United States
Griffin SO, Gooch BF, Lockwood SA, Tomar SL. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2001;29:120–129.
Demonstrates the total contribution of water fluoridation, not just to fluoridated communities but to surrounding nonfluoridated communities as well. This article helps to:
The following selected reports and journal articles provide more detailed evidence supporting the benefits of community water fluoridation (see also Systematic Reviews).
Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General
Chapter 7 presents the evidence for community water fluoridation for prevention of tooth decay.
Achievements in Public Health 1900–1999—Fluoridation of Drinking
Water to Prevent Dental Caries
MMWR, October 22, 1999;48(41);933–940.
Recognizes community water fluoridation as one of the 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century, provides a brief history of water fluoridation, and describes the historical decline in tooth decay.
Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin
D, and Fluoride*
Describes the dietary reference intakes for specific nutrients known to be beneficial to health, including fluoride. As is the case with all nutrients, there are recommendations for both adequate intake and tolerable intake levels. This report addresses both benefits and safety.
Scientific Reviews: Assessing the
Weight of the Evidence
Various scientific reviews that provide compelling evidence that community water fluoridation is a safe and effective method for reducing tooth decay.
An Economic Evaluation of
Community Water Fluoridation. (PDF 1.0Mb)
Griffin SO, Jones K, Tomar SL. J Publ Health Dent 2001;61(2):78–86. An analysis of the most current data available on the effectiveness and costs of water fluoridation. The study compares average per person cost of community water fluoridation with the cost of prevented disease. This study:
Cost Savings of Community Water
Studies continue to show that widespread community water fluoridation prevents cavities and saves money, both for families and the health care system.
Fluoridation and Costs of Medicaid Treatment for Dental Decay—Louisiana, 1995–1996
MMWR, September 3, 1999;48(34):753–757.
Findings suggest that Medicaid-eligible children in communities without community water fluoridation had an increased cost for dental treatment per child that was twice as high as those children living in fluoridated communities.
|Systematic and Evidence-based Reviews|
Comprehensive reviews on the science available to determine the benefits and effectiveness of community water fluoridation.
Recommendations for Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control Dental Caries
in the United States. MMWR, August 17, 2001;50(RR–14):1–42.
Also available as a
PDF file (PDF 373K).
Provides guidance to health care providers, public health officials, policymakers, and the general public on how to achieve maximum protection against tooth decay while using dental care resources efficiently and minimizing any cosmetic concerns.
Reviews of Evidence on
Interventions to Prevent Dental Caries, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers, and
Sports-Related Craniofacial Injuries*
From the Task Force on Community Preventive Services, provides information on the studies used in the evidence review on community water fluoridation, the suitability of the study designs, and quality of the evidence used to determine the magnitude of effectiveness of community water fluoridation.
Promoting Oral Health: Interventions for Preventing Dental Caries, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers, and Sports-Related Craniofacial Injuries
MMWR, November 30, 2001;50(RR21);1–13.
Reinforces the evidence-based prevention activities of community water fluoridation and school-based or school–linked dental sealant programs.
A Systematic Review
of Public Water Fluoridation *
Done by the University of York in the United Kingdom, this is a systematic review of the best available evidence on positive and negative effects of community water fluoridation.
Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks
Comprehensive review and evaluation of the public health benefits and risks of fluoride from drinking water and other sources by the U.S. Public Health Service.
One or more documents on this Web page is available in Portable Document Format (PDF). You will need Acrobat Reader to view and print these documents.
* Links to non-Federal organizations are
provided solely as a service to our users. Links do not constitute an
endorsement of any organization by CDC or the Federal Government, and none
should be inferred. The CDC is not responsible for the content of the individual
organization Web pages found at this link.
Date last reviewed: January 6, 2011
Date last updated: January 6, 2011
Content source: Division of Oral Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion