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Weekly Report: Influenza Summary Update

2007-2008 Influenza Season Week 3, ending January 19, 2008

(All data are preliminary and may change as more reports are received.)

Synopsis

During week 3 (January 13 - 19, 2008), influenza activity continued to increase in the United States.

  • Three hundred twenty-nine (11.1%) specimens tested by U.S. World Health Organization (WHO) and National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) collaborating laboratories were positive for influenza.
  • The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza was slightly above the epidemic threshold.
  • The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was above national baseline levels, and the proportion of outpatient visits for acute respiratory illness (ARI) was below national baseline levels. The East North Central, East South Central, Mountain, New England, Pacific, West North Central, and West South Central regions reported ILI at or above their region-specific baselines.
  • Six states reported widespread influenza activity; 17 states reported regional influenza activity; 17 states and the District of Columbia reported local influenza activity; 10 states and Puerto Rico reported sporadic influenza activity.

National and Regional Summary of Select Surveillance Components

Region
Data for current week Data cumulative for the season
Sentinel Provider ILI* DoD and VA ARI* % pos. for flu† # jurisdictions reporting regional or widespread activity‡ A (H1) A (H3) A Unsub-typed B Pediatric Deaths
Nation Elevated Normal 11.1 % 23 of 51 462 176 1879 442 1
New England Elevated Normal 4.3 % 2 of 6 18 1 56 39 0
Mid-Atlantic Normal Normal 5.5 % 3 of 3 10 3 104 88 0
East North Central Elevated Normal 13.7 % 0 of 5 44 25 12 34 0
West North Central Elevated Normal 6.5 % 3 of 7 10 4 95 22 0
South Atlantic Normal Normal 7.8 % 4 of 9 29 39 319 95 0
East South Central Elevated Normal 5.1 % 1 of 4 4 7 6 4 0
West South Central Elevated Normal 16.6 % 2 of 4 29 76 930 63 1
Mountain Elevated Normal 12.4 % 4 of 8 167 11 228 69 0
Pacific Elevated Normal 10.7 % 4 of 5 151 10 129 28 0

* Elevated means the % of visits for ILI or ARI is at or above the national or region-specific baseline
† National data is for current week; regional data is for the most recent 3 weeks.
‡ Includes all 50 states and the District of Columbia

Laboratory Surveillance

During week 3, WHO and NREVSS laboratories reported 2,971 specimens tested for influenza viruses, 329 (11.1%) of which were positive, including 38 influenza A (H1) viruses, 38 influenza A (H3) viruses, 190 influenza A viruses that were not subtyped, and 63 influenza B viruses. The District of Columbia and 45 states from all nine surveillance regions have reported laboratory-confirmed influenza this season.

Since September 30, 2007, WHO and NREVSS laboratories have tested a total of 64,795 specimens for influenza viruses and 2,959 (4.6%) were positive. Among the 2,959 influenza viruses, 2,517 (85.1%) were influenza A viruses and 442 (14.9%) were influenza B viruses. Six hundred thirty-eight (25.3%) of the 2,517 influenza A viruses have been subtyped: 462 (72.4%) were influenza A (H1) viruses and 176 (27.6%) were influenza A (H3) viruses.

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated
View WHO-NREVSS Regional Bar Charts | View Chart Data | View Full Screen

Antigenic Characterization:

CDC has antigenically characterized 197 influenza viruses [101 influenza A (H1), 53 influenza A (H3), and 43 influenza B viruses] collected by U.S. laboratories since September 30, 2007.

Influenza A (H1) [101]
  • Ninety-seven (96%) of the 101 viruses were characterized as A/Solomon Islands/3/2006, the influenza A (H1) component of the 2007-08 influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere and the 2008 influenza A (H1) component for the Southern Hemisphere.
  • Four (4%) of the 101 viruses showed somewhat reduced titers with antisera produced against A/Solomon Islands/3/2006.
Influenza A (H3) [53]
  • Six (11%) of the 53 viruses were characterized as A/Wisconsin/67/2005-like, the influenza A (H3) component of the 2007-08 influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Forty-six (87%) of the 53 viruses were characterized as A/Brisbane/10/2007-like. A/Brisbane/10/2007 is a recent antigenic variant which evolved from A/Wisconsin/67/2005-like. A/Brisbane/10/2007-like virus is the recommended influenza A (H3) component for the 2008 Southern Hemisphere vaccine.
  • One (2%) of the 53 viruses showed somewhat reduced titers with antisera produced against A/Wisconsin/67/2005 and A/Brisbane/10/2007.
Influenza B (B/Victoria/02/87 and B/Yamagata/16/88 lineages) [43]

    Victoria lineage [3]
  • Three (7%) of the 43 influenza B viruses characterized belong to the B/Victoria lineage of viruses.
    • o Two (67%) of these 3 viruses were characterized as B/Ohio/01/2005-like. The recommended influenza B component for the 2007-08 influenza vaccine is a B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like virus, belonging to the B/Victoria lineage. B/Ohio/01/2005 is a recent B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like reference strain.
      o One (33%) of these 3 viruses showed somewhat reduced titers with antisera produced against B/Ohio/01/2005 and B/Malaysia/2506/2004.
    Yamagata lineage [40]
  • Forty (93%) of the 43 viruses were identified as belonging to the B/Yamagata lineage of viruses.
It is too early in the influenza season to determine which influenza viruses will predominate or how well the vaccine and circulating strains will match.

Pneumonia and Influenza (P&I) Mortality Surveillance

During week 3, 7.3% of all deaths reported through the 122-Cities Mortality Reporting System were reported as due to P&I. This percentage is slightly above the epidemic threshold of 7.0% for week 3.

Pneumonia And Influenza Mortality
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Influenza-Associated Pediatric Mortality

No influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported during week 3. One influenza-associated pediatric death occurring during the 2007-08 season has been reported.

Influenza-Associated Pediatric Mortality
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Influenza-Associated Pediatric Hospitalizations

Laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated pediatric hospitalizations are monitored in two population-based surveillance networks: the New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) and the Emerging Infections Program (EIP).

During November 4, 2007-January 12, 2008, the preliminary laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalization rate reported by the NVSN for children 0-4 years old was 0.73 per 10,000.

EIP Influenza Laboratory chart
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During September 30 – January 8, 2008, the preliminary laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalization rate reported by the EIP for children 0–17 years old was 0.11 per 10,000. For children aged 0-4 years and 5-17 years, the rate was 0.3 per 10,000 and 0.04 per 10,000, respectively.

EIP Influenza Laboratory chart
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Outpatient Illness Surveillance

Nationwide during week 3, 2.6% of outpatient visits reported through the U.S. Influenza Sentinel Provider Surveillance Network were due to influenza-like illness (ILI) and 2.5% of patient visits to Department of Veteran’s Affairs (VA) and Department of Defense (DoD) outpatient treatment facilities were for acute respiratory illness (ARI). The percentage of visits for ILI was above the national baseline of 2.2%, and the percentage of visits for ARI was below the national baseline of 3.2%. On a regional level, the percentage of visits for ILI ranged from 1.4% to 5.6% and the percentage of visits for ARI ranged from 1.3% to 3.0%. The East North Central, East South Central, Mountain, New England, Pacific, West North Central, and West South Central regions reported ILI at or above their region-specific baselines. All nine regions reported percentages of visits for ARI below their respective region-specific baselines. The percentage of visits for ARI reported for all five age groups was below their respective age-specific baselines.

national levels of ILI and ARI
View Sentinel Providers Regional Charts | View Chart Data |View Full Screen
Bar Chart for Influenza-like Illness
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Geographic Spread of Influenza as Assessed by State and Territorial Epidemiologists

During week 3 the following influenza activity was reported:

  • Widespread activity was reported by six states (Colorado, Hawaii, New Jersey, New York, Texas, and Virginia).
  • Regional activity was reported by 17 states (Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Washington).
  • Local activity was reported by the District of Columbia and 17 states (Alabama, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Wisconsin, and Wyoming).
  • Sporadic activity was reported by Puerto Rico and 10 states (Delaware, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Missouri, New Hampshire, Ohio, Vermont, and West Virginia).

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A description of surveillance methods is available at: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/fluactivity.htm

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