Does Breast or Ovarian Cancer Run in Your Family?
If you have close relatives with breast or ovarian cancer, you may be at higher risk for developing these diseases. Does your family health history put you at higher risk? Would you benefit from cancer genetic counseling and testing?
Each year, over 200,000 women in the United States are diagnosed with breast cancer and more than 20,000 are diagnosed with ovarian cancer. About 3% of breast cancers (about 6,000 women per year) and 10% of ovarian cancers (about 2,000 women per year) result from inherited mutations (changes) in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes that are passed on in families. Inherited mutations in other genes can also cause breast and ovarian cancer, but BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the genes most commonly affected. Knowing your family health history can help you find out if you could be at higher risk of developing breast and/or ovarian cancer. If so, you can take steps to help lower your risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer.
Cancer risks for women
Breast Cancer Risk
Women in the
About 7 out of 100 women in the U.S. general population will get breast cancer by age 70.
About 93 out of 100 of these women will NOT get breast cancer by age 70.
Women with a BRCA1
About 50 out of 100 women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation will get breast cancer by age 70.
About 50 out of 100 of these women will NOT get breast cancer by age 70.
Ovarian Cancer Risk
Women in the
About 1 out of 100 women in the U.S. general population will get ovarian cancer by age 70.
About 99 out of 100 of these women will NOT get ovarian cancer by age 70.
Women with a BRCA1
About 30 out of 100 women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation will get ovarian cancer by age 70.
About 70 out of 100 of these women will NOT get ovarian cancer by age 70.
Does Your Family Health History Put You At Risk?
Tell your doctor if you have a personal or family health history of any of the following:
- Breast cancer at age 45 or younger in women
- Breast cancer at age 46–50 in women and at least one close blood relative with breast cancer at any age or limited information about family history
- Triple negative breast cancer at age 60 or younger in women (Triple negative cancers are a type of breast cancer that lack estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2))
- Breast cancer at any age in men
- Ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer
- Cancer in both breasts
- Pancreatic cancer or prostate cancer with Gleason score >7
- Breast, ovarian, pancreatic, or prostate cancer among multiple blood relatives
- Ashkenazi (Eastern European) Jewish ancestry
- A known BRCA mutation in the family
All women should collect and record their family health history of breast and ovarian cancer. You can inherit BRCA and other mutations from your mother or your father, so be sure to include information from both sides of your family. Close relatives include your parents, sisters, brothers, children, grandparents, aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews, and grandchildren.
You can use the Know:BRCA tool to collect your family health history information, assess your risk for BRCA mutations, and share this information with your doctor. Update your family health history on a regular basis and let your doctor know if any new cases of breast or ovarian cancer occur.
What Can You Do If You Are Concerned About Your Risk?
If you are concerned that you might have an inherited mutation that increases your risk for breast and ovarian cancer, the first step is to talk to your doctor about your family health history and whether genetic counseling might be right for you. Your doctor may refer you to a genetic counselor or other qualified health care professional to discuss your family health history and to learn about your options for genetic testing.
The genetic counselor can use your family health history information to determine your possible cancer risks and whether you might consider BRCA genetic testing to find out if you have a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Genetic testing is most useful if first performed on someone in your family who has had breast or ovarian cancer. If this relative has a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, then her close relatives can be offered testing for that mutation. If she does not have a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, then her relatives may not need to be tested. Remember that most breast and ovarian cancer is not caused by BRCA mutations so most women don't need BRCA genetic testing.
The genetic counselor can discuss the pros and cons of testing and what possible test results could mean for you and your family. It is important to note that genetic testing for BRCA mutations will not find all causes of hereditary breast or ovarian cancer. In some cases, the genetic counselor might recommend genetic testing using a panel that looks for mutations in several genes in addition to BRCA1 and BRCA2. BRCA genetic counseling and testing is often, but not always, covered without cost sharing by many health plans under the Affordable Care Act.
- Factors that may increase risk for breast cancer and ovarian cancer
- Ways to reduce your risk for breast cancer and ovarian cancer
- Types of family history patterns for which genetic counseling may be appropriate
- Genetic counseling and evaluation for BRCA testing
- Recommendations and clinical summary from the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)
- Page last reviewed: October 20, 2015
- Page last updated: October 20, 2015
- Content source:
- Office of Public Health Genomics
- Page maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media Branch, Division of Public Affairs