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References

  1. Hofmann J, Cetron MS, Farley MM, et al. The prevalence of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Atlanta. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:481-6.
  2. Panlilio AL, Culver DH, Gaynes RP, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in U.S. hospitals, 1975-1991. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1992;13:582-6.
  3. CDC. Four pediatric deaths from community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus -Minnesota and North Dakota, 1997-1999. MMWR. 1999;48:707-10. (Also available in PDF format [PDF - 470 KB]
  4. Gupta K, Scholes D, Stamm WE. Increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens causing acute uncomplicated cystitis in women. JAMA. 1999;281:736-8.
  5. Glynn MK, Bopp C, Dewitt W, et al. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium DT104 infections in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:1333-8.
  6. Martone W. Spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci: why did it happen in the United States? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998;19:539-45.
  7. Wiener J, Quinn JP, Bradford PA, et al. Multiple antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella and Escherichia coli in nursing homes. JAMA 1999;281:517-23.
  8. CDC. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance, unpublished data 1999.
  9. Hiramatsu K, Hanaki H, Ino T, Yabuta K, Oguri T, Tenover FC. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical strain with reduced vancomycin susceptibility. J Antimicrob Chemother 1997;40:135-136.
  10. Smith TL, Pearson ML, Wilcox KR, et al. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus . N Engl J Med. 1999;340:493-501.
  11. Pablos-Mendez A, Raviglione MC, Laszlo A, et al. Global surveillance for antituberculosis drug resistance, 1994-1997. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1641-9.
  12. Fox KK, Knapp JS, Holmes KK, et al. Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States, 1998-1994: the emergence of decreased susceptibility to the fluoroquinolones. J Infect Dis 1997;175:1396-403.
  13. Wainberg MA, Friedland G. Public health implications of antiretroviral therapy and HIV drug resistance. JAMA 1998;279:1977-83.
  14. Rex JH, Rinaldi MG, Pfaller MA. Resistance of Candida species to fluconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemotherapy 1995;39:1-8.
  15. White NJ. Drug resistance in malaria. Br Med Bull 1998;54:703-15.
  16. Adcock PM, Pastor P, Medley F, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in two child care centers. J Infect Dis 1998;178:577-80.
  17. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Impacts of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, OTA-H-629, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1995.
  18. National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine. Forum on Emerging Infections, Antimicrobial Resistance: Issues and Options [Workshop Report], Washington, DC, 1998.
  19. American Society for Microbiology. Report of the ASM Task Force on Antibiotic Resistance, Washington, DC, 1995.
  20. World Health Organization. World Health Organization Report on Infectious Diseases 2000; Overcoming Antimicrobial Resistance. WHO/CDS/2000.2 Geneva 2000.
  21. General Accounting Office, Antimicrobial Resistance: Data to assess public health threat from resistant bacteria are limited [PDF - 225 KB] [GAO/HEHS/NSIAD/RCED-99-132], Washington, DC, April 1999.
  22. General Accounting Office, Food Safety: The agricultural use of antibiotics and its implications for human health [PDF - 312 KB] [GAO/RCED-99-74], Washington, DC, April 1999.
  23. World Health Organization. Draft Global Strategy for the Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance. Available on the Internet at http://www.who.int/emc/amr.html.
  24. Centers for Disease Control. A national action plan to combat multidrug resistant tuberculosis. MMWR 1992;41 (RR-11).
  25. Department of Health and Human Services. Development of a Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance. Federal Register 1999;64:34558.
  26. Department of Health and Human Services. Draft Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance. Federal Register 2000; 65:38832-3.
  27. American Society for Microbiology. Clean Hands Campaign. Available on the Internet at http://www.washup.org/.
  28. Partnership for Food Safety Education. Fight Bac! Available on the Internet at http://www.fightbac.org/.
  29. Department of Agriculture. U.S. Government Food Safety for Farm to Table: A National Food-Safety Initiative, A Report to the President, Washington, DC, May 1997.
  30. Food and Drug Administration. A Proposed Framework for Evaluating and Assuring the Human Safety of the Microbial Effects of Antimicrobial New Animal Drugs Intended for Use in Food-producing Animals, Rockville, MD, February 1999.

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