Analyzing Prescription Data and Morphine Milligram Equivalents
These files below may be useful for:
- Pharmacy benefit managers
- Prescription monitoring programs
- Others who analyze prescription data for the purpose of preventing prescription drug misuse, abuse, and overdose.
CDC’s Injury Center has compiled a listing of medications at the National Drug Code level to help with analyzing prescription data for the purpose of preventing prescription drug misuse, abuse, and overdose. In addition to prescription benzodiazepines, muscle relaxants, stimulants, and zolpidem, the file contains opioids with their oral morphine milligram equivalent (MME) conversion factors. The following information is provided for all drugs: product name, generic name, master form, DEA Schedule, strength, and unit of measure. Please see the Documentation for the MME per day formula.
Use of this file for clinical decision-making warrants caution. The MME conversion factor is intended only for analytic purposes where prescription data are used to calculate MME to inform analyses of risks associated with opioid prescribing for pain. The conversion factors for drugs prescribed or provided as part of medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder should not be used to benchmark against dosage thresholds meant for opioids prescribed for pain. In addition, the conversion factors do not constitute clinical guidance or recommendations. For guidance on dosage of opioids for treatment of chronic pain, including conversion factors for commonly prescribed opioids, please see the CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain. For guidance regarding converting patients from one form of opioid pain medication to another, or for guidance on dosing of medication-assisted treatments for opioid use disorder, please consult the manufacturers’ full prescribing information.
SAS Merging Program
This SAS program merges a data file containing dispensed controlled drug information (e.g., an outpatient prescription drug file) with CDC's data file of controlled substances with MME conversion factors.
Additional Data Sources
CDC's WONDER (Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research) an easy-to-use, menu-driven system that makes the information resources of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) available to public health professionals and the public at large. It provides access to a wide array of public health information.
CDC’s WISQARS™ (Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System) is an interactive, online database that provides fatal and nonfatal injury, violent death, and cost of injury data from a variety of trusted sources.
- CDC Data & Statistics
This web site features interactive tools, surveys, publications, databases, and more.
- CMS Medicare Part D Opioid Drug Mapping Tool
Interactive mapping tool that shows geographic comparisons
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has made it a priority to address opioid abuse, dependence, and overdose. Several agencies within HHS have joined the effort
- HHS Opioids Initiative
- Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic
- Press Release: March 26, 2015: HHS takes strong steps to address opioid-drug related overdose, death and dependence
- Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Special Report
- Califf RM, Woodcock J, Ostroff S. A Proactive Response to Prescription Opioid Abuse. New England Journal of Medicine. February 4, 2016: Special Report. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsr1601307
- National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
- Surgeon General
- For graphics, posters, promotion materials, and more
- When the Prescription Becomes the Problem: Resources
- CDC Publications