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Glossary of Terms

| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

A

Age-adjusted

The age-adjusted percentage is an artificial estimate that minimizes the effects of different age distributions and allows comparisons between different populations. It represents what the crude percentage would have been in the study population if that population had the same age distribution as a standard population. For example, that is a population in which the age composition is known precisely as a result of a census.

A1c

See Hemoglobin A1c.

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B

Blood glucose

The main sugar found in the blood and the body’s main source of energy. The A1c blood test is used to measure a person’s average blood sugar level during the past
2 to 3 months.

Blood pressure

The force of blood on the inside walls of blood vessels, measured by analyzing both the systolic blood pressure, the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries, and the diastolic blood pressure, when the heart is at rest.

Blood lipid

Fat in the blood stream, which is measured with a lipid profile blood test. The lipid profile test measures total cholesterol, the fat produced by the liver and found in some foods, triglycerides, the storage form of fat in the body, HDL cholesterol, fat that takes extra cholesterol from the blood to the liver for removal, and LDL cholesterol, fat that takes excess cholesterol around the body to where it’s needed, but excess ultimately rests on the inside of artery walls.

Body Mass Index (BMI)

A number calculated from a person's weight and height. BMI provides a reliable indicator of body fatness for most people and is used to screen for weight categories that may lead to health problems. The BMI formula is the following: weight (kg) / [height (m)]2

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C

Confidence Interval

A confidence interval gives an estimated range of values which is likely to include an unknown population parameter.

County Equivalent

A unit of local government in certain states that is comparable to a county (e.g., parish, borough, municipio). An area defined by the U.S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes in which no county-level government exits. The District of Columbia is also considered a "county equivalent."

 

Crude

The crude percentage is the raw percentage or the unadjusted estimate.

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D

Diabetes

Diabetes is a group of diseases marked by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

A condition in which very high blood sugar levels along with a very low level of insulin result in a dangerous accumulation of ketones — substances produced when the body breaks down fat for energy — in the blood and urine. Hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome is another condition in which one’s blood sugar levels become very high and necessary ketones are not present in the blood or urine. Coma or death can result if both of these conditions are not treated.

Diabetic Retinopathy

A diabetic eye disease that results from damage to the small blood vessels in the retina, the back part of the eye that contains the cells that respond to light. It may lead to loss of eyesight. Laser therapy, one possible treatment option, uses a strong beam of light to seal the leaking blood vessels in the eye.

Diagnosed Diabetes

A person is considered to have diagnosed diabetes if a doctor had ever told that he or she had diabetes. Women who were told they only had diabetes during pregnancy are not considered to have diabetes.

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E

End-Stage Renal Disease

Kidney failure requiring dialysis or a transplant to survive.

Equal Intervals

This method sets the value ranges in each category equal in size. The entire range of data values (max - min) is divided equally into however many categories have been chosen.

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F

 

G

Gestational Diabetes

A form of glucose intolerance diagnosed in some women during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes occurs more frequently among African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, and American Indians. It is also more common among obese women and women with a family history of diabetes. During pregnancy, gestational diabetes requires treatment to normalize maternal blood glucose levels to avoid complications in the infant. After pregnancy, 5% to 10% of women with gestational diabetes are found to have type 2 diabetes. Women who have had gestational diabetes have a 35% to 60% chance of developing diabetes in the next 10 to 20 years.

Glucose Intolerance

A condition in which the body has blood sugar levels higher than normal, but not high enough to classify as diabetes. Diagnosis is determined using an oral glucose tolerance test which requires a fasting period of 8 to 12 hours and the blood sugar is measured both fasting and 2 hours after drinking a high-sugar drink. A 2-hour blood glucose level between 140 and 199 mg/dl indicates impaired glucose intolerance (IGT).

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H

Hemoglobin A1c

Hemoglobin A1c is the form of hemoglobin that attaches to glucose. The A1c test measures the amount of glucose attached to your hemoglobin and is used to determine the average level of blood sugar over the past 2 to 3 months in a person with diabetes.

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I

Inactivity

See Leisure-time physical inactivity.

Insulin

A hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches, and other food into energy needed for daily life.

Ischemic Heart Disease

Disease caused by a lack of blood to the heart due to a narrowing or obstruction of the arteries that could result in a heart attack.

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J

 

K

 

L

Leisure-time Physical Inactivity

A person is considered physically inactive if during the past month, other than a regular job, he or she did not participate in any physical activities or exercises such as running, calisthenics, golf, gardening, or walking for exercise.

M

Maturity-onset Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes that accounts for 1 to 5 percent of people with diabetes and is a result of a defect in a single gene.

Metformin

A medicine pill used to treat type 2 diabetes by lowering blood sugar levels and reducing the amount of sugar produced by the liver to help the body respond better to insulin.

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N

Natural Breaks

The Natural Breaks classing method identifies groupings that naturally exist in the data. The classes or "breaks" (i.e., categories or intervals) are selected using a statistical process that determines the "break points" where there are relatively big jumps in the data values to best group similar values and to maximize the differences between classes.

Neuropathy

Disease of the nerves that is marked by muscle weakness, pain, and numbness.

Non-Traumatic Lower-Limb Amputation

A procedure to remove through surgery damaged feet or legs, where the injury was not caused by trauma (e.g., the injury was not caused by a car accident).

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O

Obese

An adult who has a body mass index of 30 or higher is considered obese. See body mass index.

 

P

Peripheral Arterial Disease

Narrowing or obstruction of an artery supplying the legs that is marked chiefly by cramping pain, weakness, numbness, and tingling in the legs.

Physical Inactivity

See Leisure-time physical inactivity.

Prediabetes

Prediabetes is a condition in which individuals have blood glucose or hemoglobin A1c levels higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. People with prediabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

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Q

Quantiles

This method classifies data into a certain number of categories (e.g., tertiles, quartiles, quintiles) with an equal number of units in each category.

Quartiles

The term quartile is used when the data are divided into four classes. In this classing method, the data are arranged in sequence from low to high values and the number of individual observations is counted. The observations are then divided into four classes, with each class containing the same number of observations.

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R

Rank

A ranking is a relationship among a set of estimates (e.g., diabetes prevalence for all 3,141 counties in the United States) such that, for any two estimates, the first is either 'ranked higher than', 'ranked lower than' or 'ranked equal to' the second. Rank is a reflection of relative burden. Ranks are extremely sensitive to sampling variation and have wide confidence intervals. Ranks for county-level data of diagnosed diabetes and selected risk factors were based on age-adjusted prevalence rates.

S

 

T

 

U

 

V

 

W

 

X

 

Y

 

Z

 

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