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Policy Resources

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State Policy Analysis

  • A Summary of Primary Stroke Center Policy in the United States [PDF-2M]
    This summary provides an overview laws and regulations related to primary stroke centers in the United States through mid-2010. It includes a summary and synthesis of policy action across states as well as an individual report for each state.
  • A Summary of Public Access Defibrillation Laws, United States, 2010
    This summary reviews each state’s legal requirements for recommended public access defibrillation(PAD) program elements and concludes that PAD programs in many states are at risk of failure because critical elements such as maintenance, medical oversight, emergency medical service notification, and continuous quality improvement are not required. The summary suggests that policy makers consider strengthening PAD policies by enacting laws that can reduce the time from collapse to shock, such as requiring the strategic placement of AEDs in high-risk locations or mandatory PAD registries that are coordinated with local EMS and dispatch centers.
  • Chronic Disease State Policy Tracking System
    The Chronic Disease State Policy Tracking System is a state-based searchable database which provides policy information relevant to the prevention and control of chronic diseases. Currently this database contains data pertaining to nutrition, physical activity, obesity, heart disease, and stroke. This system provides a single data source for identifying and tracking selected policies in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The database can be used to conduct policy research and help educate public health professionals, researchers, and decision makers about state-level policies and programs to address chronic diseases. The types of policies collected include bills, acts, statutes and agency regulations.

State Law Fact Sheets

Law can serve as an important tool in improving public health.1 Given that heart disease and stroke are among the leading causes of death, disability, and health expenditures in the United States, an understanding of the legal interventions available to state and local authorities could assist decision makers when assessing policy options to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. State Law Fact Sheets describe the scientific evidence in support of particular legal interventions, and describe the extent to which states have enacted such laws. Such information can be useful to state and local public health practitioners, researchers, and decision makers.

Policy Evidence Assessment Reports

Policy Evidence Assessment Reports summarize the evidence bases for components of chronic disease policy. Evidence-based policy can be used to prevent, control, and improve the outcomes of chronic disease, but the strength of the evidence for many components of policy is unknown. The Policy Evidence Assessment Reports are intended to inform researchers, evaluators, and practitioners about the strengths and limitations of the evidence bases for individual components of chronic disease policy. These reports can be used during consideration of policy options to improve chronic disease outcomes, as well as to understand how enacted state laws incorporate evidence-based policy.

Guides, Recommendations, & Tools

Supporting Resources

  • The Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions Designed to Reduce Sodium Intake
    This comprehensive literature review summarizes evidence on selected population-wide interventions to reduce sodium as approaches to control hypertension. The findings indicate that sodium reduction interventions are low in cost and cost-effective.
  • Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States
    This Institute of Medicine (IOM) report recommends strategies for reducing sodium intake to levels recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The IOM concludes that reducing sodium content in food requires new policies to set sodium standards for both manufacturers and restaurants so that all sources in the food supply are involved.
  • A Population-Based Policy and Systems Change Approach to Prevent and Control Hypertension
    This Institute of Medicine (IOM) report recommends that federal, state, and local health agencies focus on population-based strategies that can reach large numbers of people and improve the well-being of entire communities. Behavioral and lifestyle interventions—reducing sodium intake, increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables, and increasing physical activity—are among the best examples. The report also highlights the need to improve providers’ adherence to the treatment guidelines for hypertension and to encourage patients to take medication consistently by reducing or eliminating the cost of antihypertensive medication.
  • The Role of Nutrition in Maintaining Health in the Nation's Elderly: Evaluating Coverage of Nutrition Services for the Medicare Population
    This Institute of Medicine (IOM) publication provides recommendations for nutrition services for the elderly, including sodium reduction among the Medicare population, and considers how health care coverage policies should be approached and practiced. The book also discusses the role of nutrition therapy in the management of cardiovascular disease, among other conditions.

References

  1. Mensah GA, Goodman RA, Zaza S, et al. Law as a tool for preventing chronic diseases: expanding the spectrum of effective public health strategies. Prev. Chron. Dis. [serial online]. 2004:1(1). Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2004/jan/03_0033.htm.

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