Research and Development Initiatives
Multimode (Internet, Mail, and Telephone) Experiments
Participation in most random-digit dialed (RDD) telephone surveys is
declining, prompting researchers to consider use of alternative survey modes
to increase participation. In October and November 2003, a set of
experiments was conducted using Internet and mail versions of the BRFSS
questionnaire administered to potential respondents drawn from the standard
BRFSS telephone sampling frame and reverse-matched to identify valid mailing
addresses. Telephone survey follow-up was conducted with Internet and mail survey nonrespondents. Results were compared with those from the ongoing
computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) BRFSS. The findings suggest
that self-administered modes when used in conjunction with telephone
follow-up can improve levels of participation, but may also increase
differences between respondents and nonrespondents on measures of interest.
As a result, overall nonresponse bias may not have been reduced despite
increases in response rates.
Publications and Presentations
Link, M., A. Mokdad. (2005). “Can Web and Mail Survey Modes Improve
Participation in an RDD-based National Health Surveillance?” Journal of
Official Statistics, 22(2): 293-312.
Link, M., A. Mokdad. (2005). “Use of Alternative Modes for Health Surveillance Surveys: Results from a Web/Mail/Telephone Experiment.” Epidemiology 16(5):701-704, September.
Link, M., A. Mokdad. (2005). “Effects of Survey Mode on Self-Reports of Adult Alcohol Consumption: Comparison of Web, Mail, and Telephone.” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66(2):239-45,
Link, M., A. Mokdad (2004). “Are Web and Mail Feasible Options for the
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System?” In Cohen SB, Lepkowski JM,
eds., Eighth Conference on Health Survey Research Methods, pp.149-158.
Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Link, M., A. Mokdad. (2004). “Can Multimode Salvage RDD for Public Health
Surveillance?” In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Logic
and Methodology (CD-ROM), Amsterdam, Netherlands.
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