CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2011

Table 7.1b: Elements of a written hospital policy
by state
In-service training Prenatal breastfeeding classes Asking about mothers' feeding plans Early initiation of breastfeeding Teaching lactation maintenance during separation Exclusive breastfeeding 24 hr/day rooming-in Breastfeeding on-demand Pacifier use Referral of mothers with breastfeeding problems N
All 57.0 55.1 82.3 80.9 71.8 66.6 68.7 81.1 54.2 71.6 2742
State
AK 61.1 50.0 84.2 87.5 58.8 52.9 88.2 88.2 29.4 70.6 20
AL 56.8 44.2 81.4 75.0 70.5 64.4 59.1 75.6 45.0 67.4 46
AR 57.7 48.0 92.9 53.8 48.1 44.4 61.5 57.7 33.3 48.0 28
AZ 57.9 50.0 84.2 84.6 76.3 65.8 82.1 87.2 63.2 78.9 41
CA 65.2 64.4 87.1 88.7 85.6 77.6 86.0 89.8 70.0 85.9 218
CO 57.4 42.2 80.9 89.6 71.7 78.3 78.3 87.2 67.4 78.3 48
CT 79.2 73.9 95.0 87.0 86.4 73.9 76.2 95.5 63.6 90.9 24
DC 80.0 60.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 5
DE 83.3 66.7 100.0 83.3 66.7 100.0 83.3 100.0 100.0 83.3 6
FL 51.2 57.5 85.1 84.5 77.9 65.1 67.9 84.9 57.3 80.0 89
GA 52.3 57.1 84.1 84.1 75.4 62.5 62.7 79.4 50.0 70.3 75
HI 40.0 33.3 100.0 100.0 75.0 100.0 80.0 83.3 60.0 66.7 7
IA 46.8 56.7 74.2 75.0 59.7 58.5 52.2 76.1 45.5 53.8 71
ID 68.0 56.0 76.9 92.6 61.5 80.8 81.5 73.1 61.5 79.2 27
IL 43.0 46.2 78.6 75.5 69.8 56.3 68.9 82.7 49.0 62.7 109
IN 56.0 48.2 76.4 79.1 75.3 64.4 46.7 83.3 59.1 69.7 94
KS 45.1 61.2 74.5 76.4 57.7 56.9 70.9 71.4 32.7 62.3 61
KY 50.0 47.5 69.2 67.4 55.8 53.8 43.6 75.6 50.0 57.5 45
LA 68.9 61.7 83.0 75.0 70.0 63.0 66.0 81.6 52.0 64.0 51
MA 76.2 70.5 78.3 97.8 93.3 88.9 82.2 95.6 77.8 86.7 46
MD 64.3 62.5 96.3 92.9 89.7 71.4 85.7 89.7 60.7 89.3 30
ME 68.0 48.0 72.0 91.7 83.3 88.0 80.0 92.3 76.0 83.3 27
MI 58.6 62.3 80.8 87.7 79.2 66.7 70.4 84.0 54.9 75.3 77
MN 53.3 64.1 83.1 75.3 68.3 73.2 70.7 81.7 59.3 80.0 89
MO 59.6 42.9 79.3 78.7 68.3 59.0 62.7 77.6 41.4 61.7 64
MS 52.4 47.6 71.4 50.0 54.5 25.0 45.5 50.0 19.0 40.0 22
MT 41.7 46.2 73.1 65.4 50.0 50.0 50.0 60.9 33.3 56.5 28
NC 60.6 48.5 87.1 80.3 73.6 73.6 72.9 82.2 56.1 75.3 78
ND 80.0 81.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 90.0 81.8 100.0 72.7 81.8 11
NE 44.7 42.2 72.3 84.8 51.1 63.0 68.8 77.1 42.6 51.1 49
NH 60.0 78.9 95.0 95.2 90.5 85.7 85.0 95.0 71.4 95.2 21
NJ 53.7 53.5 77.3 81.4 78.6 66.7 60.5 90.7 60.5 81.4 44
NM 45.8 37.5 79.2 79.2 65.2 63.6 76.0 80.0 41.7 66.7 26
NV 57.1 53.3 69.2 71.4 71.4 57.1 76.9 71.4 46.2 71.4 15
NY 62.0 74.8 91.6 94.4 90.6 85.6 94.4 94.4 76.0 91.3 109
OH 51.9 53.6 83.7 79.1 78.7 72.2 65.9 85.6 56.8 79.1 94
OK 50.0 51.1 70.5 77.8 55.8 55.6 59.2 67.4 34.1 65.1 49
OR 53.1 47.9 88.5 90.2 66.0 66.7 69.4 78.8 43.1 67.3 53
PA 62.8 65.1 90.8 82.0 80.0 65.2 67.4 86.5 48.2 75.3 93
PI 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 80.0 100.0 100.0 75.0 100.0 5
PR 57.1 50.0 85.7 100.0 100.0 57.1 71.4 85.7 33.3 85.7 7
RI 100.0 100.0 100.0 83.3 83.3 100.0 66.7 100.0 83.3 80.0 6
SC 65.7 48.6 80.6 73.0 66.7 61.1 65.7 77.8 44.1 66.7 38
SD 43.8 61.1 82.4 68.8 70.6 61.1 63.2 88.9 66.7 68.4 20
TN 68.5 45.5 79.3 58.6 62.1 56.1 59.6 64.9 45.8 49.1 60
TX 57.4 50.5 81.6 74.8 62.1 53.5 55.5 72.4 44.4 61.6 219
UT 55.9 55.9 82.9 78.0 61.5 67.5 54.1 66.7 40.0 61.0 42
VA 47.4 57.9 87.5 75.0 69.8 68.3 63.4 65.9 46.2 68.3 44
VT 40.0 44.4 80.0 100.0 80.0 90.0 70.0 90.0 90.0 70.0 10
WA 52.7 49.2 85.5 91.8 69.4 74.6 90.3 85.7 59.0 80.0 68
WI 59.2 57.7 74.4 84.1 67.1 64.6 60.8 80.7 60.8 70.5 87
WV 40.0 34.6 80.0 80.0 65.2 64.0 68.0 80.8 45.8 52.0 28
WY 40.0 31.3 73.3 52.9 33.3 66.7 52.9 66.7 43.8 56.3 18

Table 7.2b: Modes used to inform staff of breastfeeding policies
by state
In-service training Policy is posted Newsletter New staff training New staff orientation Staff meeting Word of mouth N
All 72.4 79.8 13.6 71.0 59.1 76.3 44.4 2742
State
AK 50.0 66.7 0.0 55.6 33.3 50.0 55.6 20
AL 71.1 77.8 13.3 68.9 62.2 73.3 40.0 46
AR 55.6 77.8 0.0 55.6 48.1 63.0 40.7 28
AZ 77.5 77.5 15.0 65.0 57.5 82.5 55.0 41
CA 81.9 86.2 16.2 74.3 68.1 81.4 45.7 218
CO 79.2 81.3 16.7 64.6 64.6 70.8 41.7 48
CT 87.5 83.3 16.7 75.0 70.8 79.2 54.2 24
DC 80.0 80.0 20.0 100.0 40.0 100.0 40.0 5
DE 50.0 100.0 0.0 83.3 66.7 83.3 16.7 6
FL 69.9 80.7 10.8 68.7 60.2 81.9 43.4 89
GA 62.5 86.1 12.5 65.3 51.4 75.0 37.5 75
HI 100.0 100.0 0.0 42.9 85.7 71.4 28.6 7
IA 59.4 75.4 10.1 72.5 60.9 79.7 44.9 71
ID 77.8 88.9 18.5 66.7 51.9 70.4 44.4 27
IL 74.5 87.7 13.2 78.3 60.4 78.3 47.2 109
IN 80.2 84.6 7.7 69.2 53.8 81.3 46.2 94
KS 61.4 66.7 10.5 56.1 47.4 64.9 43.9 61
KY 55.8 76.7 2.3 55.8 55.8 76.7 32.6 45
LA 74.0 74.0 12.0 72.0 66.0 82.0 48.0 51
MA 91.3 91.3 17.4 87.0 73.9 89.1 56.5 46
MD 73.3 90.0 13.3 86.7 63.3 83.3 60.0 30
ME 69.2 80.8 23.1 76.9 65.4 65.4 57.7 27
MI 65.8 78.9 18.4 84.2 56.6 75.0 53.9 77
MN 65.5 77.0 18.4 74.7 64.4 74.7 54.0 89
MO 79.0 83.9 19.4 66.1 59.7 87.1 48.4 64
MS 73.7 63.2 0.0 63.2 47.4 63.2 36.8 22
MT 64.0 56.0 4.0 60.0 56.0 72.0 48.0 28
NC 74.7 89.3 17.3 70.7 60.0 78.7 34.7 78
ND 81.8 81.8 45.5 72.7 81.8 81.8 72.7 11
NE 49.0 71.4 10.2 49.0 32.7 49.0 55.1 49
NH 85.0 100.0 15.0 85.0 70.0 90.0 40.0 21
NJ 86.0 90.7 25.6 72.1 67.4 83.7 37.2 44
NM 62.5 75.0 4.2 58.3 62.5 70.8 41.7 26
NV 78.6 78.6 14.3 57.1 50.0 71.4 42.9 15
NY 82.6 82.6 11.0 74.3 66.1 86.2 43.1 109
OH 76.9 85.7 15.4 72.5 59.3 76.9 38.5 94
OK 68.1 70.2 2.1 59.6 55.3 59.6 42.6 49
OR 71.7 75.5 24.5 60.4 52.8 84.9 35.8 53
PA 73.1 90.3 11.8 79.6 57.0 68.8 50.5 93
PI 60.0 100.0 0.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 0.0 5
PR 57.1 42.9 14.3 71.4 57.1 57.1 14.3 7
RI 66.7 83.3 16.7 83.3 83.3 66.7 33.3 6
SC 64.9 81.1 8.1 70.3 45.9 64.9 32.4 38
SD 75.0 80.0 20.0 85.0 50.0 80.0 35.0 20
TN 76.7 81.7 10.0 76.7 56.7 76.7 45.0 60
TX 69.7 66.8 8.2 72.6 56.7 71.6 40.9 219
UT 69.2 53.8 15.4 61.5 48.7 84.6 41.0 42
VA 74.4 79.1 20.9 79.1 60.5 81.4 41.9 44
VT 50.0 80.0 0.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 50.0 10
WA 72.7 80.3 27.3 69.7 63.6 72.7 54.5 68
WI 76.7 82.6 19.8 76.7 59.3 76.7 39.5 87
WV 60.7 75.0 7.1 82.1 60.7 78.6 35.7 28
WY 52.9 64.7 23.5 47.1 58.8 82.4 47.1 18

Table 7.3b: Documentation of breastfeeding practices
by state
Does the facility document rates of breastfeeding among patients
No/not sure Only intention at admission Yes, rates are assessed N
All 71.8 14.5 13.8 2719
State
AK 70.0 10.0 20.0 20
AL 78.3 13.0 8.7 46
AR 42.9 21.4 35.7 28
AZ 65.9 22.0 12.2 41
CA 85.8 2.8 11.5 218
CO 75.0 14.6 10.4 48
CT 79.2 8.3 12.5 24
DC 100.0 0.0 0.0 5
DE 83.3 16.7 0.0 6
FL 72.7 14.8 12.5 88
GA 71.2 13.7 15.1 73
HI 71.4 0.0 28.6 7
IA 53.5 21.1 25.4 71
ID 66.7 14.8 18.5 27
IL 68.8 19.3 11.9 109
IN 72.8 18.5 8.7 92
KS 58.3 21.7 20.0 60
KY 82.2 6.7 11.1 45
LA 68.6 19.6 11.8 51
MA 84.8 13.0 2.2 46
MD 70.0 16.7 13.3 30
ME 84.6 7.7 7.7 26
MI 68.8 18.2 13.0 77
MN 62.5 11.4 26.1 88
MO 68.3 20.6 11.1 63
MS 50.0 36.4 13.6 22
MT 60.7 10.7 28.6 28
NC 75.7 14.9 9.5 74
ND 72.7 18.2 9.1 11
NE 56.3 14.6 29.2 48
NH 76.2 19.0 4.8 21
NJ 90.7 4.7 4.7 43
NM 69.2 11.5 19.2 26
NV 60.0 20.0 20.0 15
NY 89.9 9.2 0.9 109
OH 87.2 12.8 0.0 94
OK 61.2 24.5 14.3 49
OR 73.6 5.7 20.8 53
PA 62.4 24.7 12.9 93
PI 75.0 0.0 25.0 4
PR 85.7 0.0 14.3 7
RI 66.7 16.7 16.7 6
SC 60.5 15.8 23.7 38
SD 70.0 25.0 5.0 20
TN 63.3 20.0 16.7 60
TX 70.2 13.5 16.3 215
UT 57.1 19.0 23.8 42
VA 63.6 22.7 13.6 44
VT 100.0 0.0 0.0 9
WA 67.2 14.9 17.9 67
WI 80.5 9.2 10.3 87
WV 60.7 14.3 25.0 28
WY 64.7 11.8 23.5 17

Table 7.4b: Supports offered to breastfeeding staff members
by state
Designated room
to express milk
On-site
child care
Electric breast
pump provided
Permission to use
breaks to express milk
Breastfeeding
support group
Lactation
consultant
available
Paid
maternity
leave
N
All 82.5 12.8 80.1 97.1 25.1 73.7 34.3 2742
State
AK 68.4 26.3 80.0 95.0 22.2 84.2 30.0 20
AL 82.6 13.0 87.0 100.0 22.2 76.1 13.0 46
AR 71.4 14.3 71.4 100.0 3.6 39.3 10.7 28
AZ 82.5 7.7 85.0 100.0 33.3 67.5 35.1 41
CA 81.5 8.5 78.8 96.8 28.0 75.0 62.0 218
CO 89.6 10.6 85.4 100.0 36.2 85.4 34.0 48
CT 100.0 29.2 95.8 100.0 52.2 79.2 50.0 24
DC 100.0 20.0 80.0 100.0 80.0 100.0 20.0 5
DE 83.3 16.7 100.0 100.0 33.3 83.3 50.0 6
FL 87.2 22.6 91.9 98.8 29.8 81.4 21.4 89
GA 72.6 18.1 77.8 95.9 25.7 69.4 26.0 75
HI 57.1 14.3 85.7 100.0 14.3 57.1 14.3 7
IA 88.7 20.0 83.1 100.0 21.4 69.6 44.3 71
ID 77.8 22.2 70.4 96.3 25.9 85.2 37.0 27
IL 83.5 20.6 87.2 97.2 32.1 82.6 30.5 109
IN 88.0 12.1 85.9 97.8 41.3 79.3 34.4 94
KS 73.3 5.3 59.3 100.0 26.8 66.1 24.1 61
KY 72.7 20.0 75.6 91.1 13.3 68.9 23.3 45
LA 72.0 5.9 72.5 96.1 15.7 70.6 27.5 51
MA 91.3 13.3 95.7 97.8 51.1 97.8 15.9 46
MD 93.3 23.3 96.7 96.7 39.3 80.0 27.6 30
ME 88.0 4.2 96.0 100.0 68.0 92.0 33.3 27
MI 93.5 7.9 87.0 97.4 18.4 80.3 50.6 77
MN 78.2 3.4 59.8 97.7 8.2 64.4 33.7 89
MO 77.8 14.3 77.8 98.4 33.3 68.3 29.0 64
MS 61.9 4.8 61.9 95.2 4.8 76.2 28.6 22
MT 77.8 7.7 48.1 96.4 23.1 74.1 22.2 28
NC 86.7 13.7 86.5 98.7 25.3 70.3 34.2 78
ND 90.9 0.0 80.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 30.0 11
NE 75.5 18.4 57.1 98.0 26.5 59.2 32.7 49
NH 100.0 30.0 95.2 100.0 55.0 95.2 25.0 21
NJ 88.6 36.4 93.2 100.0 30.2 72.7 70.5 44
NM 64.0 7.7 68.0 92.0 7.7 53.8 36.0 26
NV 66.7 13.3 73.3 86.7 26.7 53.3 40.0 15
NY 89.0 13.3 91.7 99.1 28.2 88.0 38.5 109
OH 95.7 8.6 95.7 98.9 28.3 88.3 40.2 94
OK 87.5 14.3 72.9 98.0 14.9 61.2 26.5 49
OR 83.0 7.7 73.6 100.0 26.4 79.2 25.0 53
PA 89.1 16.7 88.0 96.8 35.2 76.1 31.1 93
PI 60.0 40.0 60.0 100.0 20.0 60.0 60.0 5
PR 100.0 0.0 25.0 100.0 50.0 60.0 100.0 7
RI 100.0 0.0 83.3 100.0 33.3 100.0 66.7 6
SC 75.7 10.5 84.2 97.4 21.1 63.2 34.2 38
SD 80.0 5.0 70.0 100.0 10.0 80.0 40.0 20
TN 81.4 6.8 81.7 96.6 6.8 68.3 17.2 60
TX 79.0 5.2 73.8 90.2 18.0 61.8 22.2 219
UT 69.0 14.6 73.2 85.0 5.1 50.0 33.3 42
VA 84.1 25.0 81.8 100.0 29.5 77.3 31.8 44
VT 70.0 10.0 100.0 100.0 30.0 90.0 40.0 10
WA 76.9 6.1 71.2 97.0 15.2 57.6 26.6 68
WI 87.2 13.1 78.8 98.8 22.6 88.4 52.4 87
WV 70.4 11.1 70.4 96.4 3.8 63.0 19.2 28
WY 58.8 23.5 82.4 100.0 0.0 64.7 17.6 18

Table 7.5b: Facility's receipt of free formula
by state
Does the facility receive infant formula free of charge
Yes No Not sure N
All 82.0 16.0 2.0 2725
State
AK 35.0 55.0 10.0 20
AL 95.7 2.2 2.2 46
AR 92.9 7.1 0.0 28
AZ 82.5 12.5 5.0 40
CA 61.4 37.2 1.4 215
CO 83.0 17.0 0.0 47
CT 62.5 33.3 4.2 24
DC 60.0 40.0 0.0 5
DE 66.7 33.3 0.0 6
FL 84.3 15.7 0.0 89
GA 92.0 4.0 4.0 75
HI 71.4 28.6 0.0 7
IA 95.8 1.4 2.8 71
ID 85.2 11.1 3.7 27
IL 93.6 4.6 1.8 109
IN 87.1 12.9 0.0 93
KS 88.3 8.3 3.3 60
KY 93.3 6.7 0.0 45
LA 98.0 2.0 0.0 51
MA 69.6 30.4 0.0 46
MD 90.0 10.0 0.0 30
ME 55.6 44.4 0.0 27
MI 90.9 9.1 0.0 77
MN 62.5 33.0 4.5 88
MO 96.8 3.2 0.0 63
MS 100.0 0.0 0.0 22
MT 77.8 18.5 3.7 27
NC 83.3 15.4 1.3 78
ND 72.7 27.3 0.0 11
NE 87.8 8.2 4.1 49
NH 57.1 42.9 0.0 21
NJ 88.6 11.4 0.0 44
NM 69.2 26.9 3.8 26
NV 86.7 6.7 6.7 15
NY 85.2 12.0 2.8 108
OH 89.4 10.6 0.0 94
OK 93.9 6.1 0.0 49
OR 63.5 28.8 7.7 52
PA 91.3 6.5 2.2 92
PI 60.0 20.0 20.0 5
PR 85.7 0.0 14.3 7
RI 66.7 33.3 0.0 6
SC 86.5 13.5 0.0 37
SD 95.0 0.0 5.0 20
TN 86.7 11.7 1.7 60
TX 82.6 16.0 1.4 219
UT 81.0 16.7 2.4 42
VA 84.1 11.4 4.5 44
VT 90.0 10.0 0.0 10
WA 65.7 31.3 3.0 67
WI 69.8 26.7 3.5 86
WV 96.3 0.0 3.7 27
WY 94.4 5.6 0.0 18

Table 7.6b: Inclusion of breastfeeding in prenatal patient education
by state
Does the facility include breastfeeding
as component of prenatal education
No/not sure Yes N
All 92.8 7.2 2718
State
AK 75.0 25.0 20
AL 93.5 6.5 46
AR 81.5 18.5 27
AZ 97.6 2.4 41
CA 90.3 9.7 217
CO 95.7 4.3 46
CT 100.0 0.0 24
DC 100.0 0.0 5
DE 100.0 0.0 6
FL 92.1 7.9 89
GA 93.2 6.8 74
HI 100.0 0.0 7
IA 98.6 1.4 71
ID 100.0 0.0 26
IL 98.2 1.8 109
IN 95.7 4.3 94
KS 93.4 6.6 61
KY 84.4 15.6 45
LA 84.0 16.0 50
MA 95.7 4.3 46
MD 90.0 10.0 30
ME 100.0 0.0 27
MI 100.0 0.0 76
MN 97.7 2.3 88
MO 93.8 6.3 64
MS 95.5 4.5 22
MT 92.9 7.1 28
NC 96.1 3.9 76
ND 81.8 18.2 11
NE 97.9 2.1 48
NH 100.0 0.0 21
NJ 93.2 6.8 44
NM 84.6 15.4 26
NV 93.3 6.7 15
NY 95.4 4.6 108
OH 98.9 1.1 93
OK 83.7 16.3 49
OR 96.2 3.8 52
PA 95.7 4.3 92
PI 100.0 0.0 5
PR 50.0 50.0 6
RI 100.0 0.0 6
SC 100.0 0.0 37
SD 85.0 15.0 20
TN 96.7 3.3 60
TX 81.1 18.9 217
UT 92.7 7.3 41
VA 97.7 2.3 44
VT 90.0 10.0 10
WA 83.6 16.4 67
WI 96.6 3.4 87
WV 92.9 7.1 28
WY 81.3 18.8 16

Table 7.7b: Existence of a designated lactation coordinator
by state
Does the facility have a designated lactation coordinator
Yes No N
All 71.2 28.8 2733
State
AK 55.0 45.0 20
AL 71.7 28.3 46
AR 46.4 53.6 28
AZ 70.0 30.0 40
CA 76.6 23.4 218
CO 81.3 18.8 48
CT 87.5 12.5 24
DC 100.0 0.0 5
DE 100.0 0.0 6
FL 70.5 29.5 88
GA 73.3 26.7 75
HI 71.4 28.6 7
IA 72.9 27.1 70
ID 77.8 22.2 27
IL 76.1 23.9 109
IN 82.6 17.4 92
KS 49.2 50.8 61
KY 64.4 35.6 45
LA 72.5 27.5 51
MA 93.5 6.5 46
MD 83.3 16.7 30
ME 81.5 18.5 27
MI 68.8 31.2 77
MN 64.0 36.0 89
MO 64.1 35.9 64
MS 59.1 40.9 22
MT 60.7 39.3 28
NC 70.5 29.5 78
ND 90.9 9.1 11
NE 68.8 31.3 48
NH 85.7 14.3 21
NJ 79.5 20.5 44
NM 46.2 53.8 26
NV 60.0 40.0 15
NY 83.5 16.5 109
OH 90.3 9.7 93
OK 57.1 42.9 49
OR 71.7 28.3 53
PA 76.3 23.7 93
PI 60.0 40.0 5
PR 28.6 71.4 7
RI 100.0 0.0 6
SC 68.4 31.6 38
SD 78.9 21.1 19
TN 68.3 31.7 60
TX 56.2 43.8 219
UT 57.1 42.9 42
VA 70.5 29.5 44
VT 40.0 60.0 10
WA 64.2 35.8 67
WI 83.9 16.1 87
WV 64.3 35.7 28
WY 55.6 44.4 18