CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2011

Table 7.1a: Elements of a written hospital policy
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
In-service training Prenatal
breastfeeding
classes
Asking about mothers' feeding plans Early initiation of breastfeeding Teaching lactation maintenance during separation Exclusive breastfeeding 24 hr/day rooming-in Breastfeeding on-demand Pacifier use Referral of mothers with breastfeeding problems N
All 57.0 55.1 82.3 81.0 71.8 66.6 68.7 81.2 54.2 71.6 2738
Type of facility
Birth center 56.6 81.1 90.3 90.0 60.3 42.7 70.5 85.2 37.2 84.8 143
Government hospital 53.6 44.8 78.2 74.7 59.9 61.6 65.5 76.7 47.7 64.6 525
Non-profit hospital 58.2 57.1 83.5 84.2 77.2 71.4 71.2 83.7 59.4 74.5 1707
Private hospital 56.3 48.2 79.2 70.7 67.5 60.1 59.4 73.8 44.3 61.0 345
Military hospital 58.8 83.3 81.3 83.3 77.8 70.6 100.0 77.8 62.5 88.2 18
Teaching hospital
Yes 64.8 65.1 91.0 87.4 88.3 82.8 79.6 88.0 71.4 85.4 210
No 56.3 52.6 81.0 79.9 71.0 66.6 67.7 80.3 53.6 69.5 2385
Size of facility
1-249 48.4 50.2 77.3 74.5 52.3 51.6 64.9 74.4 40.1 62.5 606
250-499 51.3 47.2 81.9 78.2 63.2 62.0 68.4 78.6 47.9 64.7 475
500-999 58.1 53.8 79.8 79.8 72.3 63.9 65.2 78.4 52.4 68.4 569
1000-1999 61.4 62.2 85.2 84.2 83.5 74.8 73.4 86.2 60.4 78.1 564
2000-4999 65.7 62.0 88.1 88.2 88.3 81.3 72.1 88.9 70.3 83.8 463
5000 or more 64.3 61.4 84.5 88.5 79.7 81.4 72.4 85.2 70.0 83.3 61
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 51.9 52.2 79.8 77.2 59.9 57.1 68.0 77.2 46.7 65.8 1067
Level 1 or 2 NICU 57.1 52.8 81.7 81.0 73.8 67.5 67.1 81.3 51.3 70.3 1066
Level 3 NICU 65.6 64.7 87.7 87.2 88.5 81.3 72.9 87.7 72.1 83.5 605
Census region
Pacific 61.3 58.5 87.3 89.7 78.6 74.6 84.6 87.4 61.8 81.3 370
Mountain 54.3 47.0 79.1 79.7 64.0 68.0 70.2 76.2 52.0 69.9 245
West North Central 51.1 56.0 78.5 77.9 63.7 63.9 65.6 78.8 47.9 64.4 364
East North Central 53.2 52.9 78.8 80.6 73.8 64.5 62.4 83.3 55.8 71.1 460
West South Central 57.9 51.9 81.2 73.4 61.2 54.5 58.0 71.8 43.6 61.3 346
East South Central 58.7 45.9 76.4 64.1 61.7 54.0 53.7 68.7 43.1 55.0 173
New England 70.9 67.5 83.5 93.8 88.3 86.2 79.5 94.6 75.2 86.6 134
Middle Atlantic 60.8 67.2 88.7 87.5 84.5 74.5 78.5 90.8 62.9 83.5 246
South Atlantic 55.5 53.5 86.0 82.2 75.3 67.6 69.3 81.1 53.5 74.1 400

Table 7.2a: Modes used to inform staff of breastfeeding policies by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
In-service training Policy is posted Newsletter New staff training New staff orientation Staff meeting Word of mouth N
All 72.3 79.9 13.7 71.0 59.1 76.3 44.5 2738
Type of facility
Birth center 59.4 57.1 3.8 61.7 54.1 59.4 50.4 143
Government hospital 64.5 73.7 10.0 62.0 60.0 72.0 42.7 525
Non-profit hospital 76.2 83.9 17.0 76.2 61.4 79.0 45.9 1707
Private hospital 70.1 78.7 7.3 62.2 48.5 76.8 37.2 345
Military hospital 77.8 66.7 0.0 72.2 50.0 61.1 50.0 18
Teaching hospital
Yes 85.6 91.8 27.9 87.0 74.5 78.4 54.3 210
No 71.9 80.1 12.9 70.1 58.0 77.0 43.2 2385
Size of facility
1-249 57.1 68.4 4.4 57.1 46.9 64.6 44.9 606
250-499 65.3 74.6 7.8 67.0 54.2 75.7 39.0 475
500-999 73.8 81.9 12.1 70.8 57.4 80.1 42.6 569
1000-1999 81.2 86.1 20.4 79.2 66.7 80.3 48.3 564
2000-4999 85.1 88.6 23.2 81.4 70.2 81.2 46.0 463
5000 or more 80.0 86.7 26.7 81.7 73.3 81.7 53.3 61
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 62.9 73.2 6.0 63.2 53.4 71.5 42.6 1067
Level 1 or 2 NICU 74.7 81.6 15.0 71.3 57.4 78.5 43.6 1066
Level 3 NICU 84.4 88.3 24.4 83.8 71.9 80.6 49.2 605
Census region
Pacific 77.2 83.0 18.1 69.6 63.5 78.3 45.4 370
Mountain 71.8 72.2 14.1 61.5 56.8 76.1 45.3 245
West North Central 64.7 76.0 15.5 66.9 55.6 73.2 49.4 364
East North Central 75.1 84.2 14.7 76.0 58.0 77.8 44.9 460
West South Central 68.9 69.2 7.3 69.2 57.1 70.7 42.3 346
East South Central 69.5 77.2 7.8 67.7 56.9 74.3 39.5 173
New England 81.1 87.9 16.7 79.5 70.5 80.3 52.3 134
Middle Atlantic 79.6 86.9 13.9 75.9 62.9 79.2 44.9 246
South Atlantic 68.7 83.2 13.2 72.8 57.3 78.0 39.1 400

Table 7.3a: Documentation of breastfeeding practices
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
Does the facility document rates of breastfeeding among patients
Yes, rates are assessed Only intention at admission No/not sure N
All 71.8 14.4 13.8 2717
Type of facility
Birth center 90.8 2.1 7.1 141
Government hospital 65.8 14.2 20.0 521
Non-profit hospital 73.9 14.9 11.2 1695
Private hospital 62.6 17.5 19.9 342
Military hospital 72.2 11.1 16.7 18
Teaching hospital
Yes 80.5 12.4 7.1 210
No 69.9 15.3 14.8 2366
Size of facility
1-249 66.7 11.0 22.3 600
250-499 64.5 19.1 16.3 471
500-999 71.3 17.0 11.7 565
1000-1999 77.7 12.1 10.2 561
2000-4999 77.6 14.4 8.1 459
5000 or more 83.6 9.8 6.6 61
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 67.3 14.2 18.6 1060
Level 1 or 2 NICU 71.4 15.4 13.2 1057
Level 3 NICU 80.3 13.2 6.5 600
Census region
Pacific 79.4 5.7 14.9 369
Mountain 65.6 16.0 18.4 244
West North Central 61.1 17.8 21.1 360
East North Central 75.6 15.7 8.7 459
West South Central 66.4 16.7 17.0 342
East South Central 70.5 16.8 12.7 173
New England 82.6 11.4 6.1 132
Middle Atlantic 79.6 14.3 6.1 245
South Atlantic 70.5 15.3 14.2 393

Table 7.4a: Supports offered to breastfeeding staff members
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
Designated room
to express milk
On-site child care Electric breast
pump provided
Permission
to use breaks
to express milk
Breastfeeding
support group
Lactation
consultant
available
Paid
maternity
leave
N
All 82.5 12.8 80.1 97.1 25.1 73.7 34.3 2738
Type of facility
Birth center 73.3 18.8 45.5 84.2 40.3 69.2 21.1 143
Government hospital 75.9 8.7 70.4 97.3 16.4 61.4 30.5 525
Non-profit hospital 85.6 14.7 85.5 98.3 27.0 79.4 37.0 1707
Private hospital 80.9 6.6 82.0 95.6 23.3 66.2 29.3 345
Military hospital 77.8 22.2 72.2 100.0 22.2 72.2 66.7 18
Teaching hospital
Yes 94.8 23.9 93.8 99.0 28.4 91.4 43.5 210
No 81.9 11.5 80.8 97.6 24.0 72.4 34.2 2385
Size of facility
1-249 68.0 6.8 52.9 93.0 18.0 55.4 28.5 606
250-499 77.3 5.4 77.6 97.4 17.3 61.7 31.8 475
500-999 84.4 10.0 90.8 97.9 27.4 78.1 33.6 569
1000-1999 90.0 18.0 89.1 98.2 30.9 85.6 37.6 564
2000-4999 92.8 22.1 91.1 99.1 30.7 87.8 38.5 463
5000 or more 95.1 34.4 95.1 100.0 36.7 85.2 50.8 61
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 72.7 6.9 66.4 94.9 19.8 60.5 30.9 1067
Level 1 or 2 NICU 86.0 12.2 86.7 98.3 26.4 77.7 34.8 1066
Level 3 NICU 93.2 24.0 92.2 98.7 32.0 89.5 39.0 605
Census region
Pacific 79.5 9.4 76.6 97.3 24.8 72.4 47.6 370
Mountain 75.9 12.6 74.6 95.0 21.7 68.3 32.5 245
West North Central 79.4 11.0 68.2 98.9 20.9 67.3 33.3 364
East North Central 89.3 12.9 87.1 98.0 29.1 83.8 40.8 460
West South Central 78.5 7.4 73.2 93.0 16.1 61.1 22.7 346
East South Central 77.1 11.7 79.1 95.9 12.4 71.5 19.0 173
New England 92.4 16.3 95.5 99.2 52.7 92.4 31.3 134
Middle Atlantic 89.0 18.8 90.6 98.4 31.2 80.7 41.6 246
South Atlantic 82.5 18.0 84.5 97.9 27.2 73.4 29.2 400

Table 7.5a: Facility's receipt of free formula
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
Does the facility receive infant formula free of charge
Yes No Not sure N
All 82.0 16.0 2.0 2723
Type of facility
Birth center 13.4 85.9 0.7 142
Government hospital 88.0 9.6 2.5 523
Non-profit hospital 83.7 14.2 2.1 1696
Private hospital 94.5 4.7 0.9 344
Military hospital 50.0 44.4 5.6 18
Teaching hospital
Yes 80.4 18.7 1.0 209
No 86.3 11.6 2.2 2372
Size of facility
1-249 69.9 26.3 3.8 601
250-499 88.2 9.9 1.9 474
500-999 87.2 11.5 1.2 564
1000-1999 84.9 13.9 1.2 562
2000-4999 81.6 16.9 1.5 461
5000 or more 82.0 16.4 1.6 61
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 76.5 20.6 2.8 1061
Level 1 or 2 NICU 87.2 11.3 1.5 1059
Level 3 NICU 82.6 16.1 1.3 603
Census region
Pacific 61.2 35.5 3.3 366
Mountain 81.8 15.3 2.9 242
West North Central 84.8 12.2 3.0 361
East North Central 86.5 12.4 1.1 449
West South Central 87.3 11.8 0.9 346
East South Central 92.5 6.4 1.2 173
New England 64.9 34.3 0.7 134
Middle Atlantic 88.1 9.8 2.0 244
South Atlantic 86.4 11.6 2.0 398

Table 7.6a: Inclusion of breastfeeding in prenatal patient education
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
Does the facility include breastfeeding as component of prenatal education
Yes No/not sure N
All 92.8 7.2 2715
Type of facility
Birth center 89.4 10.6 141
Government hospital 86.4 13.6 523
Non-profit hospital 95.4 4.6 1692
Private hospital 91.2 8.8 341
Military hospital 94.4 5.6 18
Teaching hospital
Yes 97.1 2.9 208
No 92.6 7.4 2366
Size of facility
1-249 86.1 13.9 598
250-499 89.2 10.8 471
500-999 94.2 5.8 566
1000-1999 97.1 2.9 559
2000-4999 97.6 2.4 460
5000 or more 98.4 1.6 61
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 87.8 12.2 1057
Level 1 or 2 NICU 94.9 5.1 1057
Level 3 NICU 98.0 2.0 601
Census region
Pacific 89.4 10.6 368
Mountain 93.3 6.7 239
West North Central 95.3 4.7 362
East North Central 98.0 2.0 458
West South Central 81.9 18.1 342
East South Central 92.5 7.5 173
New England 97.8 2.2 134
Middle Atlantic 95.1 4.9 244
South Atlantic 93.9 6.1 395

Table 7.7a: Existence of a designated lactation coordinator
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
Does the facility have a designated lactation coordinator
Yes No N
All 71.2 28.8 2731
Type of facility
Birth center 46.5 53.5 142
Government hospital 60.5 39.5 524
Non-profit hospital 78.0 22.0 1703
Private hospital 63.7 36.3 344
Military hospital 72.2 27.8 18
Teaching hospital
Yes 91.9 8.1 210
No 70.8 29.2 2379
Size of facility
1-249 48.1 51.9 603
250-499 57.6 42.4 474
500-999 74.6 25.4 567
1000-1999 85.8 14.2 563
2000-4999 90.7 9.3 463
5000 or more 90.2 9.8 61
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 54.8 45.2 1062
Level 1 or 2 NICU 75.9 24.1 1064
Level 3 NICU 91.6 8.4 605
Census region
Pacific 72.2 27.8 370
Mountain 65.6 34.4 244
West North Central 65.4 34.6 361
East North Central 80.6 19.4 458
West South Central 57.8 42.2 346
East South Central 67.1 32.9 173
New England 85.1 14.9 134
Middle Atlantic 80.1 19.9 246
South Atlantic 71.4 28.6 399