CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2011

Table 3.1b: Documentation of infant feeding decisions
by state
How often infant feeding decisions are documented in medical records
Rarely Sometimes Often Almost always Not sure N
All 0.3 0.3 1.6 97.8 0.0 2739
State
AK 5.0 0.0 10.0 85.0 0.0 20
AL 2.2 0.0 2.2 95.7 0.0 46
AR 3.6 0.0 0.0 96.4 0.0 28
AZ 0.0 0.0 2.4 97.6 0.0 41
CA 0.0 0.5 1.8 97.7 0.0 218
CO 0.0 0.0 2.1 97.9 0.0 48
CT 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 24
DC 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 5
DE 0.0 0.0 16.7 83.3 0.0 6
FL 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 89
GA 0.0 0.0 1.3 98.7 0.0 75
HI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 7
IA 0.0 0.0 1.4 98.6 0.0 71
ID 0.0 3.7 0.0 96.3 0.0 27
IL 0.0 0.0 1.8 98.2 0.0 109
IN 0.0 0.0 2.1 97.9 0.0 94
KS 0.0 0.0 3.3 96.7 0.0 61
KY 0.0 0.0 2.2 97.8 0.0 45
LA 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 51
MA 0.0 0.0 2.2 97.8 0.0 46
MD 0.0 0.0 3.3 96.7 0.0 30
ME 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 27
MI 1.3 1.3 1.3 96.1 0.0 77
MN 1.1 0.0 2.2 96.6 0.0 89
MO 0.0 0.0 1.6 98.4 0.0 64
MS 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 22
MT 0.0 0.0 3.6 96.4 0.0 28
NC 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 78
ND 0.0 0.0 9.1 90.9 0.0 11
NE 0.0 0.0 4.1 95.9 0.0 49
NH 0.0 0.0 4.8 95.2 0.0 21
NJ 0.0 0.0 2.3 97.7 0.0 44
NM 0.0 3.8 0.0 96.2 0.0 26
NV 0.0 0.0 6.7 93.3 0.0 15
NY 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 108
OH 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 94
OK 0.0 2.0 2.0 95.9 0.0 49
OR 1.9 0.0 1.9 96.2 0.0 53
PA 0.0 0.0 0.0 98.9 1.1 93
PI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 5
PR 0.0 0.0 14.3 85.7 0.0 7
RI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 6
SC 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 38
SD 0.0 0.0 5.0 95.0 0.0 20
TN 0.0 0.0 1.7 98.3 0.0 60
TX 0.5 0.5 2.8 96.3 0.0 217
UT 0.0 2.4 0.0 97.6 0.0 42
VA 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 44
VT 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 10
WA 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 68
WI 0.0 0.0 1.1 98.9 0.0 87
WV 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 28
WY 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 18

Table 3.2b: Provision of advice & instructions for breastfeeding patients
by state
How many breastfeeding patients are provided
advice & instructions about breastfeeding
Few Some Many Most N
All 0.1 1.1 8.0 90.8 2725
State
AK 5.0 0.0 5.0 90.0 20
AL 0.0 0.0 8.7 91.3 46
AR 0.0 3.6 21.4 75.0 28
AZ 0.0 2.4 7.3 90.2 41
CA 0.0 0.5 6.0 93.6 218
CO 0.0 2.1 2.1 95.8 48
CT 0.0 4.2 8.3 87.5 24
DC 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 5
DE 0.0 0.0 16.7 83.3 6
FL 0.0 1.1 7.9 91.0 89
GA 0.0 1.4 8.1 90.5 74
HI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 7
IA 0.0 0.0 8.5 91.5 71
ID 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 27
IL 0.0 1.9 9.3 88.9 108
IN 0.0 1.1 3.2 95.7 93
KS 0.0 3.3 8.2 88.5 61
KY 2.2 2.2 11.1 84.4 45
LA 0.0 3.9 3.9 92.2 51
MA 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 46
MD 0.0 0.0 3.3 96.7 30
ME 0.0 0.0 3.8 96.2 26
MI 1.3 2.6 13.0 83.1 77
MN 0.0 0.0 12.6 87.4 87
MO 0.0 0.0 6.3 93.8 64
MS 0.0 0.0 19.0 81.0 21
MT 0.0 0.0 10.7 89.3 28
NC 0.0 1.3 7.7 91.0 78
ND 0.0 0.0 27.3 72.7 11
NE 0.0 0.0 8.5 91.5 47
NH 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 21
NJ 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 44
NM 0.0 3.8 19.2 76.9 26
NV 0.0 13.3 20.0 66.7 15
NY 0.0 0.0 6.5 93.5 107
OH 0.0 0.0 4.3 95.7 94
OK 0.0 2.0 16.3 81.6 49
OR 0.0 0.0 1.9 98.1 53
PA 0.0 0.0 4.3 95.7 92
PI 0.0 0.0 20.0 80.0 5
PR 0.0 0.0 28.6 71.4 7
RI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 6
SC 0.0 0.0 10.5 89.5 38
SD 0.0 0.0 20.0 80.0 20
TN 0.0 3.3 16.7 80.0 60
TX 0.0 1.9 9.7 88.4 216
UT 0.0 2.4 19.0 78.6 42
VA 0.0 0.0 11.4 88.6 44
VT 0.0 0.0 20.0 80.0 10
WA 0.0 0.0 4.5 95.5 67
WI 0.0 0.0 1.2 98.8 86
WV 0.0 0.0 3.6 96.4 28
WY 0.0 0.0 11.1 88.9 18

Table 3.3b: Education on infant cues to feed
by state
How many patients are taught to recognize & respond
to infant cues rather than feeding on a set schedule
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 0.3 1.7 13.2 84.6 0.2 2725
State
AK 0.0 5.0 0.0 95.0 0.0 20
AL 0.0 0.0 8.7 91.3 0.0 46
AR 0.0 3.6 28.6 67.9 0.0 28
AZ 0.0 4.9 17.1 78.0 0.0 41
CA 0.0 3.2 10.1 86.7 0.0 218
CO 0.0 0.0 12.5 87.5 0.0 48
CT 0.0 4.2 8.3 87.5 0.0 24
DC 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 5
DE 0.0 0.0 16.7 83.3 0.0 6
FL 0.0 2.2 14.6 83.1 0.0 89
GA 0.0 1.4 21.6 77.0 0.0 74
HI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 7
IA 0.0 1.4 14.1 84.5 0.0 71
ID 0.0 0.0 14.8 85.2 0.0 27
IL 0.9 0.0 17.6 81.5 0.0 108
IN 0.0 3.2 8.6 87.1 1.1 93
KS 1.6 1.6 14.8 82.0 0.0 61
KY 2.2 2.2 11.1 84.4 0.0 45
LA 2.0 3.9 13.7 80.4 0.0 51
MA 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 46
MD 0.0 0.0 13.3 86.7 0.0 30
ME 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 26
MI 2.6 1.3 22.1 74.0 0.0 77
MN 0.0 0.0 14.9 85.1 0.0 87
MO 0.0 1.6 10.9 85.9 1.6 64
MS 0.0 4.8 33.3 57.1 4.8 21
MT 0.0 0.0 17.9 82.1 0.0 28
NC 0.0 1.3 12.8 84.6 1.3 78
ND 0.0 0.0 27.3 72.7 0.0 11
NE 0.0 2.1 23.4 74.5 0.0 47
NH 0.0 0.0 9.5 90.5 0.0 21
NJ 0.0 0.0 6.8 93.2 0.0 44
NM 0.0 7.7 26.9 65.4 0.0 26
NV 0.0 13.3 20.0 66.7 0.0 15
NY 0.0 0.0 6.5 93.5 0.0 107
OH 0.0 2.1 7.4 89.4 1.1 94
OK 0.0 6.1 16.3 77.6 0.0 49
OR 0.0 0.0 9.4 90.6 0.0 53
PA 0.0 0.0 13.0 87.0 0.0 92
PI 0.0 0.0 40.0 60.0 0.0 5
PR 0.0 0.0 42.9 57.1 0.0 7
RI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 6
SC 0.0 0.0 21.1 78.9 0.0 38
SD 0.0 0.0 25.0 75.0 0.0 20
TN 0.0 5.0 15.0 80.0 0.0 60
TX 0.0 2.3 12.0 85.6 0.0 216
UT 2.4 0.0 28.6 66.7 2.4 42
VA 0.0 0.0 9.1 90.9 0.0 44
VT 0.0 0.0 20.0 80.0 0.0 10
WA 0.0 0.0 6.0 94.0 0.0 67
WI 0.0 0.0 9.3 90.7 0.0 86
WV 0.0 0.0 14.3 85.7 0.0 28
WY 0.0 0.0 11.1 88.9 0.0 18

Table 3.4b: Education on limitation to time suckling
by state
How often are breastfeeding patients instructed to limit
suckling at the breast to a specific length of time
Rarely Sometimes Often Almost always Not sure N
All 47.9 24.1 14.3 11.5 2.2 2721
State
AK 65.0 10.0 10.0 15.0 0.0 20
AL 37.0 17.4 23.9 21.7 0.0 46
AR 32.1 25.0 14.3 28.6 0.0 28
AZ 41.5 19.5 22.0 17.1 0.0 41
CA 56.7 20.7 7.4 12.0 3.2 217
CO 43.8 35.4 6.3 12.5 2.1 48
CT 70.8 20.8 8.3 0.0 0.0 24
DC 60.0 20.0 0.0 20.0 0.0 5
DE 33.3 16.7 33.3 0.0 16.7 6
FL 48.3 21.3 19.1 10.1 1.1 89
GA 41.1 26.0 13.7 17.8 1.4 73
HI 28.6 42.9 14.3 14.3 0.0 7
IA 42.3 38.0 12.7 4.2 2.8 71
ID 40.7 29.6 7.4 18.5 3.7 27
IL 38.9 29.6 19.4 7.4 4.6 108
IN 44.6 29.3 17.4 6.5 2.2 92
KS 32.8 29.5 13.1 21.3 3.3 61
KY 40.0 28.9 8.9 20.0 2.2 45
LA 51.0 17.6 19.6 9.8 2.0 51
MA 76.1 15.2 6.5 2.2 0.0 46
MD 53.3 16.7 26.7 3.3 0.0 30
ME 69.2 23.1 7.7 0.0 0.0 26
MI 50.6 18.2 16.9 11.7 2.6 77
MN 36.8 33.3 19.5 8.0 2.3 87
MO 43.8 28.1 15.6 12.5 0.0 64
MS 28.6 19.0 19.0 33.3 0.0 21
MT 32.1 28.6 10.7 25.0 3.6 28
NC 52.6 23.1 11.5 10.3 2.6 78
ND 45.5 36.4 18.2 0.0 0.0 11
NE 42.6 23.4 12.8 21.3 0.0 47
NH 85.7 14.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 21
NJ 63.6 25.0 4.5 6.8 0.0 44
NM 30.8 34.6 19.2 15.4 0.0 26
NV 40.0 26.7 26.7 6.7 0.0 15
NY 60.7 22.4 8.4 6.5 1.9 107
OH 60.6 21.3 9.6 7.4 1.1 94
OK 26.5 26.5 26.5 16.3 4.1 49
OR 61.5 25.0 7.7 3.8 1.9 52
PA 48.9 30.4 16.3 3.3 1.1 92
PI 20.0 40.0 20.0 20.0 0.0 5
PR 14.3 28.6 28.6 28.6 0.0 7
RI 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6
SC 47.4 28.9 15.8 5.3 2.6 38
SD 50.0 35.0 5.0 10.0 0.0 20
TN 35.0 18.3 23.3 21.7 1.7 60
TX 35.9 21.2 21.7 18.9 2.3 217
UT 54.8 14.3 14.3 16.7 0.0 42
VA 47.7 18.2 15.9 11.4 6.8 44
VT 70.0 20.0 0.0 10.0 0.0 10
WA 63.6 16.7 9.1 3.0 7.6 66
WI 61.6 24.4 8.1 1.2 4.7 86
WV 35.7 21.4 17.9 21.4 3.6 28
WY 33.3 22.2 16.7 27.8 0.0 18

Table 3.5b: Directly observed breastfeeding assessments
by state
How many breastfeeding patients receive a
directly observed breastfeeding assessment
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 0.4 2.1 12.1 85.4 0.1 2729
State
AK 0.0 0.0 5.0 95.0 0.0 20
AL 0.0 8.7 19.6 71.7 0.0 46
AR 0.0 0.0 21.4 78.6 0.0 28
AZ 0.0 2.4 4.9 92.7 0.0 41
CA 0.5 2.3 7.9 89.3 0.0 215
CO 0.0 2.1 8.3 89.6 0.0 48
CT 4.2 0.0 4.2 91.7 0.0 24
DC 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 5
DE 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 6
FL 0.0 2.3 8.0 89.8 0.0 88
GA 0.0 1.3 10.7 88.0 0.0 75
HI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 7
IA 0.0 0.0 12.7 87.3 0.0 71
ID 0.0 0.0 3.7 96.3 0.0 27
IL 0.0 2.8 14.7 82.6 0.0 109
IN 0.0 2.2 10.8 87.1 0.0 93
KS 0.0 6.6 13.1 80.3 0.0 61
KY 2.2 2.2 24.4 71.1 0.0 45
LA 0.0 3.9 13.7 82.4 0.0 51
MA 0.0 0.0 2.2 97.8 0.0 45
MD 0.0 3.3 13.3 83.3 0.0 30
ME 0.0 0.0 3.7 96.3 0.0 27
MI 1.3 3.9 13.0 81.8 0.0 77
MN 0.0 2.2 19.1 78.7 0.0 89
MO 0.0 1.6 12.5 85.9 0.0 64
MS 0.0 4.5 31.8 63.6 0.0 22
MT 0.0 0.0 14.8 85.2 0.0 27
NC 0.0 2.6 14.1 82.1 1.3 78
ND 0.0 0.0 18.2 81.8 0.0 11
NE 0.0 0.0 20.4 79.6 0.0 49
NH 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 21
NJ 0.0 4.5 9.1 86.4 0.0 44
NM 0.0 0.0 23.1 76.9 0.0 26
NV 0.0 6.7 20.0 73.3 0.0 15
NY 0.9 0.9 11.2 86.9 0.0 107
OH 0.0 0.0 11.7 88.3 0.0 94
OK 2.0 2.0 16.3 79.6 0.0 49
OR 0.0 0.0 5.7 94.3 0.0 53
PA 0.0 2.2 10.8 87.1 0.0 93
PI 0.0 0.0 20.0 80.0 0.0 5
PR 0.0 14.3 57.1 28.6 0.0 7
RI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 6
SC 0.0 0.0 18.4 81.6 0.0 38
SD 0.0 0.0 25.0 75.0 0.0 20
TN 0.0 6.7 18.3 75.0 0.0 60
TX 1.4 3.2 12.8 82.1 0.5 218
UT 0.0 0.0 7.3 92.7 0.0 41
VA 0.0 2.3 11.4 86.4 0.0 44
VT 0.0 0.0 10.0 90.0 0.0 10
WA 1.5 0.0 7.5 91.0 0.0 67
WI 0.0 0.0 5.7 94.3 0.0 87
WV 0.0 0.0 14.8 85.2 0.0 27
WY 0.0 0.0 16.7 83.3 0.0 18

Table 3.6b: Use of a standardized breastfeeding assessment tool
by state
Is breastfeeding assessed using a standardized or adapted assessment tool
Yes No N
All 67.2 32.8 2725
State
AK 30.0 70.0 20
AL 63.0 37.0 46
AR 25.0 75.0 28
AZ 75.6 24.4 41
CA 86.4 13.6 214
CO 79.2 20.8 48
CT 62.5 37.5 24
DC 60.0 40.0 5
DE 83.3 16.7 6
FL 69.7 30.3 89
GA 73.0 27.0 74
HI 85.7 14.3 7
IA 56.3 43.7 71
ID 81.5 18.5 27
IL 67.0 33.0 109
IN 65.6 34.4 93
KS 41.0 59.0 61
KY 51.1 48.9 45
LA 70.6 29.4 51
MA 84.8 15.2 46
MD 83.3 16.7 30
ME 59.3 40.7 27
MI 75.3 24.7 77
MN 75.3 24.7 89
MO 64.1 35.9 64
MS 28.6 71.4 21
MT 51.9 48.1 27
NC 62.8 37.2 78
ND 72.7 27.3 11
NE 42.9 57.1 49
NH 76.2 23.8 21
NJ 75.0 25.0 44
NM 65.4 34.6 26
NV 71.4 28.6 14
NY 63.6 36.4 107
OH 61.7 38.3 94
OK 63.3 36.7 49
OR 77.4 22.6 53
PA 68.8 31.2 93
PI 80.0 20.0 5
PR 40.0 60.0 5
RI 83.3 16.7 6
SC 55.3 44.7 38
SD 75.0 25.0 20
TN 67.2 32.8 58
TX 60.3 39.7 219
UT 81.0 19.0 42
VA 59.1 40.9 44
VT 70.0 30.0 10
WA 73.1 26.9 67
WI 75.9 24.1 87
WV 51.9 48.1 27
WY 77.8 22.2 18

Table 3.7b: Provision of pacifiers
by state
How many breastfed infants are
given pacifiers by facility staff
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 36.0 28.1 26.4 8.7 0.8 2728
State
AK 55.0 30.0 15.0 0.0 0.0 20
AL 13.0 32.6 37.0 15.2 2.2 46
AR 25.0 35.7 25.0 14.3 0.0 28
AZ 43.9 12.2 36.6 7.3 0.0 41
CA 51.6 34.0 11.6 2.8 0.0 215
CO 54.2 22.9 20.8 2.1 0.0 48
CT 54.2 16.7 12.5 16.7 0.0 24
DC 40.0 0.0 60.0 0.0 0.0 5
DE 50.0 33.3 0.0 16.7 0.0 6
FL 39.3 20.2 33.7 5.6 1.1 89
GA 21.6 32.4 32.4 13.5 0.0 74
HI 85.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 14.3 7
IA 26.8 29.6 31.0 9.9 2.8 71
ID 40.7 25.9 25.9 7.4 0.0 27
IL 26.6 32.1 33.0 8.3 0.0 109
IN 29.0 30.1 33.3 7.5 0.0 93
KS 23.0 29.5 37.7 6.6 3.3 61
KY 15.6 24.4 31.1 26.7 2.2 45
LA 29.4 33.3 27.5 9.8 0.0 51
MA 54.3 26.1 13.0 6.5 0.0 46
MD 43.3 26.7 23.3 6.7 0.0 30
ME 81.5 11.1 7.4 0.0 0.0 27
MI 33.8 28.6 26.0 11.7 0.0 77
MN 38.2 38.2 11.2 11.2 1.1 89
MO 28.1 32.8 26.6 12.5 0.0 64
MS 9.1 22.7 40.9 22.7 4.5 22
MT 50.0 15.4 15.4 15.4 3.8 26
NC 37.2 29.5 17.9 12.8 2.6 78
ND 27.3 27.3 45.5 0.0 0.0 11
NE 28.6 36.7 24.5 10.2 0.0 49
NH 61.9 38.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 21
NJ 39.5 27.9 27.9 2.3 2.3 43
NM 42.3 23.1 19.2 11.5 3.8 26
NV 13.3 33.3 46.7 6.7 0.0 15
NY 52.3 22.9 21.1 0.9 2.8 109
OH 28.0 30.1 29.0 12.9 0.0 93
OK 22.4 22.4 36.7 16.3 2.0 49
OR 49.1 28.3 17.0 5.7 0.0 53
PA 20.7 32.6 37.0 9.8 0.0 92
PI 80.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 20.0 5
PR 85.7 14.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 7
RI 83.3 16.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 6
SC 34.2 28.9 28.9 7.9 0.0 38
SD 25.0 30.0 35.0 10.0 0.0 20
TN 25.0 26.7 31.7 15.0 1.7 60
TX 33.0 19.3 37.2 10.1 0.5 218
UT 14.3 26.2 42.9 16.7 0.0 42
VA 43.2 25.0 20.5 11.4 0.0 44
VT 70.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 0.0 10
WA 42.4 36.4 16.7 3.0 1.5 66
WI 37.9 37.9 23.0 1.1 0.0 87
WV 29.6 25.9 37.0 7.4 0.0 27
WY 27.8 16.7 44.4 11.1 0.0 18