CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2011

Table 3.1a: Documentation of infant feeding decisions
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
How often infant feeding decisions are documented in medical records
Rarely Sometimes Often Almost always Not sure N
All 0.3 0.3 1.6 97.8 0.0 2735
Type of facility
Birth center 2.1 1.4 2.1 94.4 0.0 142
Government hospital 0.2 0.4 2.1 97.3 0.0 525
Non-profit hospital 0.2 0.1 1.3 98.3 0.1 1706
Private hospital 0.0 0.3 1.7 98.0 0.0 344
Military hospital 0.0 0.0 5.6 94.4 0.0 18
Teaching hospital
Yes 0.0 0.0 2.4 97.6 0.0 209
No 0.2 0.2 1.5 98.1 0.0 2384
Size of facility
1-249 0.7 0.5 3.1 95.7 0.0 605
250-499 0.2 0.2 0.8 98.5 0.2 475
500-999 0.2 0.2 1.9 97.7 0.0 569
1000-1999 0.2 0.2 0.9 98.8 0.0 564
2000-4999 0.0 0.2 0.9 98.9 0.0 461
5000 or more 0.0 0.0 1.6 98.4 0.0 61
Unknown 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 10
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 0.5 0.6 2.3 96.5 0.1 1066
Level 1 or 2 NICU 0.2 0.0 0.9 98.9 0.0 1066
Level 3 NICU 0.0 0.2 1.5 98.3 0.0 603
Census region
Pacific 0.5 0.3 1.9 97.3 0.0 370
Mountain 0.0 1.2 1.6 97.1 0.0 245
West North Central 0.3 0.0 2.7 97.0 0.0 364
East North Central 0.2 0.2 1.3 98.3 0.0 460
West South Central 0.6 0.6 2.0 96.8 0.0 344
East South Central 0.6 0.0 1.7 97.7 0.0 173
New England 0.0 0.0 1.5 98.5 0.0 134
Middle Atlantic 0.0 0.0 0.4 99.2 0.4 245
South Atlantic 0.0 0.0 1.0 99.0 0.0 400
             

Table 3.2a: Provision of advice & instructions for breastfeeding patients
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
How many breastfeeding patients are provided
advice & instructions about breastfeeding
Few Some Many Most N
All 0.1 1.1 8.0 90.8 2723
Type of facility
Birth center 0.0 0.7 4.9 94.4 142
Government hospital 0.0 2.3 11.3 86.4 523
Non-profit hospital 0.1 0.6 6.7 92.6 1696
Private hospital 0.3 1.5 10.2 88.1 344
Military hospital 0.0 5.6 22.2 72.2 18
Teaching hospital
Yes 0.0 0.5 7.7 91.9 209
No 0.1 1.1 8.2 90.5 2372
Size of facility
1-249 0.2 1.3 9.0 89.5 600
250-499 0.4 0.6 8.7 90.3 473
500-999 0.0 1.4 8.3 90.3 567
1000-1999 0.0 1.2 6.2 92.5 562
2000-4999 0.0 0.7 7.2 92.2 460
5000 or more 0.0 0.0 13.1 86.9 61
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 0.2 1.1 8.7 90.0 1059
Level 1 or 2 NICU 0.1 1.3 8.6 90.0 1063
Level 3 NICU 0.0 0.5 5.8 93.7 601
Census region
Pacific 0.3 0.3 5.1 94.3 370
Mountain 0.0 2.4 10.2 87.3 245
West North Central 0.0 0.6 10.3 89.2 360
East North Central 0.2 1.1 6.1 92.6 458
West South Central 0.0 2.3 10.8 86.9 343
East South Central 0.6 1.7 13.4 84.3 172
New England 0.0 0.8 3.8 95.5 133
Middle Atlantic 0.0 0.0 4.5 95.5 243
South Atlantic 0.0 0.8 8.3 91.0 399

Table 3.3a: Education on infant cues to feed
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
How many patients are taught to recognize & respond
to infant cues rather than feeding on a set schedule
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 0.3 1.7 13.3 84.6 0.2 2723
Type of facility
Birth center 0.7 0.0 7.7 91.5 0.0 142
Government hospital 0.4 3.4 14.9 80.9 0.4 523
Non-profit hospital 0.2 1.2 12.7 85.7 0.2 1696
Private hospital 0.3 1.7 15.4 82.3 0.3 344
Military hospital 0.0 5.6 16.7 77.8 0.0 18
Teaching hospital
Yes 0.0 1.9 11.0 86.1 1.0 209
No 0.3 1.7 13.8 84.1 0.2 2372
Size of facility
1-249 0.3 1.2 14.5 83.7 0.3 600
250-499 0.4 1.9 16.1 81.4 0.2 473
500-999 0.0 1.8 14.5 83.8 0.0 567
1000-1999 0.4 1.6 10.5 87.5 0.0 562
2000-4999 0.2 2.0 10.7 86.7 0.4 460
5000 or more 0.0 1.6 13.1 83.6 1.6 61
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 0.3 1.4 14.2 83.9 0.3 1059
Level 1 or 2 NICU 0.3 2.2 14.2 83.3 0.0 1063
Level 3 NICU 0.2 1.2 10.0 88.2 0.5 601
Census region
Pacific 0.0 2.2 8.9 88.9 0.0 370
Mountain 0.4 2.4 18.8 78.0 0.4 245
West North Central 0.3 1.1 16.1 82.2 0.3 360
East North Central 0.7 1.3 12.9 84.7 0.4 458
West South Central 0.3 3.2 14.3 82.2 0.0 343
East South Central 0.6 2.9 14.5 81.4 0.6 172
New England 0.0 0.8 4.5 94.7 0.0 133
Middle Atlantic 0.0 0.0 9.1 90.9 0.0 243
South Atlantic 0.0 1.0 15.8 83.0 0.3 399

Table 3.4a: Education on limitation to time suckling
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
How often are breastfeeding patients instructed to
limit suckling at the breast to a specific length of time
Rarely Sometimes Often Almost always Not sure N
All 47.9 24.1 14.3 11.5 2.2 2719
Type of facility
Birth center 72.5 10.6 4.2 7.7 4.9 142
Government hospital 37.3 27.2 17.0 16.6 1.9 523
Non-profit hospital 52.1 23.8 13.0 9.3 1.8 1692
Private hospital 34.0 26.5 20.1 16.0 3.5 344
Military hospital 27.8 22.2 33.3 16.7 0.0 18
Teaching hospital
Yes 59.8 24.4 10.0 3.3 2.4 209
No 45.4 24.8 15.3 12.5 2.0 2368
Size of facility
1-249 39.2 23.7 16.7 17.5 3.0 600
250-499 47.6 23.3 14.2 13.3 1.7 473
500-999 46.1 27.0 14.8 10.2 1.8 566
1000-1999 53.3 21.0 14.4 9.1 2.1 561
2000-4999 52.7 26.6 11.5 7.2 2.0 459
5000 or more 66.7 15.0 8.3 6.7 3.3 60
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 44.9 23.3 15.2 14.1 2.6 1058
Level 1 or 2 NICU 45.8 25.7 15.2 11.4 2.0 1062
Level 3 NICU 56.9 22.5 11.4 7.3 1.8 599
Census region
Pacific 58.0 20.7 8.2 9.5 3.5 367
Mountain 41.2 26.1 14.3 17.1 1.2 245
West North Central 40.3 31.4 14.7 11.9 1.7 360
East North Central 50.8 24.9 14.4 6.8 3.1 457
West South Central 36.3 21.8 21.5 18.0 2.3 344
East South Central 36.0 20.9 19.2 22.7 1.2 172
New England 75.9 17.3 5.3 1.5 0.0 133
Middle Atlantic 56.8 25.9 10.7 5.3 1.2 243
South Atlantic 46.5 22.6 16.6 11.8 2.5 398

Table 3.5a: Directly observed breastfeeding assessments
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
How many breastfeeding patients receive
a directly observed breastfeeding assessment
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 0.4 2.1 12.1 85.4 0.1 2727
Type of facility
Birth center 0.0 0.0 2.8 97.2 0.0 142
Government hospital 0.6 4.0 17.3 78.1 0.0 525
Non-profit hospital 0.3 1.4 11.3 86.9 0.1 1699
Private hospital 0.6 2.3 12.2 84.5 0.3 343
Military hospital 0.0 16.7 11.1 72.2 0.0 18
Teaching hospital
Yes 0.0 4.8 11.1 83.7 0.5 208
No 0.4 1.9 12.8 84.8 0.0 2377
Size of facility
1-249 0.3 1.3 11.6 86.8 0.0 604
250-499 0.4 2.1 11.0 86.5 0.0 474
500-999 0.5 1.4 13.8 84.3 0.0 567
1000-1999 0.4 2.7 12.4 84.5 0.0 563
2000-4999 0.2 2.6 11.6 85.2 0.4 458
5000 or more 0.0 4.9 13.1 82.0 0.0 61
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 0.3 1.4 12.4 85.9 0.0 1062
Level 1 or 2 NICU 0.5 2.2 12.9 84.5 0.0 1063
Level 3 NICU 0.3 3.0 10.3 86.0 0.3 602
Census region
Pacific 0.5 1.4 7.4 90.7 0.0 367
Mountain 0.0 1.2 10.7 88.1 0.0 243
West North Central 0.0 1.9 16.2 81.9 0.0 364
East North Central 0.2 1.7 11.3 86.7 0.0 460
West South Central 1.2 2.9 14.2 81.4 0.3 345
East South Central 0.6 5.8 22.0 71.7 0.0 173
New England 0.8 0.0 3.0 96.2 0.0 133
Middle Atlantic 0.4 2.0 10.7 86.9 0.0 244
South Atlantic 0.0 2.0 12.6 85.2 0.3 398

Table 3.6a: Use of a standardized breastfeeding assessment tool by
facility type, size, NICU level, and region
Is breastfeeding assessed using a standardized
or adapted assessment tool
Yes No N
All 67.2 32.8 2723
Type of facility
Birth center 28.2 71.8 142
Government hospital 57.6 42.4 523
Non-profit hospital 73.0 27.0 1699
Private hospital 69.2 30.8 341
Military hospital 66.7 33.3 18
Teaching hospital
Yes 79.4 20.6 209
No 68.4 31.6 2372
Size of facility
1-249 44.9 55.1 603
250-499 62.4 37.6 474
500-999 70.7 29.3 564
1000-1999 78.8 21.2 562
2000-4999 80.6 19.4 459
5000 or more 82.0 18.0 61
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 54.8 45.2 1061
Level 1 or 2 NICU 72.2 27.8 1061
Level 3 NICU 80.2 19.8 601
Census region
Pacific 79.5 20.5 366
Mountain 74.1 25.9 243
West North Central 59.3 40.7 364
East North Central 68.7 31.3 460
West South Central 59.2 40.8 346
East South Central 57.1 42.9 170
New England 73.1 26.9 134
Middle Atlantic 67.6 32.4 244
South Atlantic 65.9 34.1 396

Table 3.7a: Provision of pacifiers
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
How many breastfed infants are given pacifiers by facility staff
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 36.1 28.1 26.3 8.7 0.8 2726
Type of facility
Birth center 94.3 0.7 2.1 2.1 0.7 140
Government hospital 33.8 27.7 25.6 12.0 1.0 524
Non-profit hospital 34.4 29.9 27.0 8.0 0.7 1699
Private hospital 24.1 30.4 34.2 9.9 1.4 345
Military hospital 38.9 38.9 22.2 0.0 0.0 18
Teaching hospital
Yes 42.8 29.8 20.2 6.7 0.5 208
No 32.0 29.6 28.3 9.2 0.9 2378
Size of facility
1-249 48.6 22.2 20.4 8.0 0.8 603
250-499 28.3 28.3 30.2 12.3 0.8 473
500-999 28.2 30.7 30.0 10.4 0.7 567
1000-1999 35.4 29.2 26.5 7.8 1.1 562
2000-4999 37.5 30.8 26.2 5.0 0.4 461
5000 or more 40.0 30.0 20.0 6.7 3.3 60
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 41.4 25.1 23.6 8.8 1.0 1062
Level 1 or 2 NICU 29.1 29.9 30.7 9.8 0.6 1063
Level 3 NICU 38.9 30.1 23.5 6.5 1.0 601
Census region
Pacific 50.8 32.2 13.1 3.0 0.8 366
Mountain 37.9 21.4 30.5 9.5 0.8 243
West North Central 29.4 33.2 26.1 9.9 1.4 364
East North Central 30.7 31.8 29.2 8.3 0.0 459
West South Central 30.4 23.2 34.5 11.3 0.6 345
East South Central 17.3 27.2 34.1 19.1 2.3 173
New England 63.4 22.4 9.0 5.2 0.0 134
Middle Atlantic 38.1 27.5 28.3 4.5 1.6 244
South Atlantic 36.2 26.4 27.1 9.5 0.8 398