CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2011

Table 2.1a: Prelacteal feeds among breastfed vaginal births
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
What percent of healthy breastfed infants receive breast milk
as first feeding after vaginal birth
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more N
All 1.1 3.6 20.1 75.2 2703
Type of facility
Birth center 0.0 0.7 1.4 97.9 143
Government hospital 1.5 6.8 22.8 68.9 518
Non-profit hospital 0.9 2.7 19.2 77.2 1683
Private hospital 2.0 4.4 27.5 66.1 342
Military hospital 0.0 0.0 35.3 64.7 17
Teaching hospital
Yes 1.0 4.9 31.2 62.9 205
No 1.2 3.6 20.3 74.9 2355
Size of facility
1-249 1.0 3.7 14.2 81.1 597
250-499 1.9 4.0 16.6 77.5 471
500-999 1.4 3.9 18.9 75.8 562
1000-1999 0.7 3.2 23.4 72.7 556
2000-4999 0.7 2.4 27.6 69.3 456
5000 or more 0.0 6.6 29.5 63.9 61
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 1.2 3.5 15.7 79.6 1053
Level 1 or 2 NICU 1.2 4.2 21.0 73.6 1055
Level 3 NICU 0.7 2.5 26.2 70.6 595
Census region
Pacific 1.1 1.9 13.3 83.7 369
Mountain 0.0 1.2 18.9 79.8 243
West North Central 0.8 2.0 20.5 76.7 356
East North Central 0.4 3.1 20.6 75.9 456
West South Central 2.3 7.3 25.4 65.0 343
East South Central 5.3 8.2 19.3 67.3 171
New England 0.0 0.0 11.3 88.7 133
Middle Atlantic 0.4 2.9 21.8 74.8 238
South Atlantic 0.8 4.8 23.9 70.6 394

Table 2.2a: Prelacteal feeds among breastfed Cesarean births
by hospital type, size, NICU level, and region*
What percent of healthy breastfed infants receive breast milk
as first feeding after Cesarean birth
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more N
All 1.8 5.1 25.5 67.6 2540
Type of facility
Government hospital 3.1 9.4 25.6 61.9 512
Non-profit hospital 1.1 3.6 24.0 71.4 1674
Private hospital 3.6 6.5 33.2 56.7 337
Military hospital 0.0 0.0 23.5 76.5 17
Teaching hospital
Yes 2.4 7.8 36.4 53.4 206
No 1.8 4.9 24.6 68.8 2334
Size of facility
1-249 2.0 5.3 20.4 72.4 456
250-499 2.4 5.7 21.0 71.0 458
500-999 1.8 5.0 23.7 69.5 557
1000-1999 1.3 4.9 27.9 66.0 556
2000-4999 1.8 5.1 33.3 59.8 453
5000 or more 1.7 3.3 35.0 60.0 60
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 2.0 5.2 21.1 71.7 897
Level 1 or 2 NICU 1.9 5.2 25.9 67.0 1051
Level 3 NICU 1.4 4.7 31.6 62.3 592
Census region
Pacific 1.2 2.1 20.2 76.4 331
Mountain 0.0 2.3 28.1 69.7 221
West North Central 0.9 2.9 22.7 73.6 348
East North Central 0.7 5.4 22.3 71.6 444
West South Central 4.5 9.1 29.8 56.6 309
East South Central 7.4 10.4 24.5 57.7 163
New England 0.0 0.0 16.0 84.0 125
Middle Atlantic 0.4 6.9 30.0 62.7 233
South Atlantic 2.5 6.3 32.5 58.7 366
*Note: Facilities not performing Cesareans are not included in these tabulations.

Table 2.3a: Supplementation of breastfed infants
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
What percent of healthy breastfed infants
receive non-breast milk feedings
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more N
All 22.9 50.7 23.7 2.7 2691
Type of facility
Birth center 88.6 8.6 1.4 1.4 140
Government hospital 19.3 50.2 26.8 3.7 518
Non-profit hospital 20.1 55.0 22.8 2.2 1679
Private hospital 14.9 47.6 33.3 4.2 336
Military hospital 33.3 55.6 11.1 0.0 18
Teaching hospital
Yes 9.7 49.3 36.2 4.8 207
No 20.2 53.4 23.9 2.6 2344
Size of facility
1-249 43.5 39.8 14.2 2.5 600
250-499 24.1 46.6 26.3 3.0 464
500-999 19.0 55.8 22.5 2.7 559
1000-1999 17.1 54.2 25.9 2.7 555
2000-4999 8.2 58.6 30.8 2.4 452
5000 or more 9.8 52.5 34.4 3.3 61
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 34.9 44.3 18.1 2.7 1053
Level 1 or 2 NICU 17.6 54.3 25.4 2.7 1044
Level 3 NICU 10.9 55.9 30.5 2.7 594
Census region
Pacific 29.8 54.5 13.8 1.9 363
Mountain 28.3 53.3 15.4 2.9 240
West North Central 25.8 56.6 16.2 1.4 357
East North Central 23.0 51.8 22.8 2.4 456
West South Central 15.8 45.2 34.9 4.1 341
East South Central 13.1 47.6 33.3 6.0 168
New England 38.6 47.7 13.6 0.0 132
Middle Atlantic 17.9 50.8 28.3 2.9 240
South Atlantic 18.8 46.2 32.2 2.8 394

Table 2.4a: Use of glucose water and/or water among breastfed infants
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
Do healthy breastfed infants receive glucose water and/or water
Yes No N
All 18.7 81.3 2603
Type of facility
Birth center 6.8 93.2 133
Government hospital 24.7 75.3 503
Non-profit hospital 17.4 82.6 1622
Private hospital 21.9 78.1 329
Military hospital 6.3 93.8 16
Teaching hospital
Yes 5.0 95.0 202
No 20.7 79.3 2268
Size of facility
1-249 26.0 74.0 576
250-499 28.3 71.7 448
500-999 20.0 80.0 536
1000-1999 12.2 87.8 543
2000-4999 7.7 92.3 441
5000 or more 6.8 93.2 59
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 25.6 74.4 1010
Level 1 or 2 NICU 17.4 82.6 1014
Level 3 NICU 9.2 90.8 579
Census region
Pacific 12.0 88.0 343
Mountain 17.0 83.0 230
West North Central 28.2 71.8 347
East North Central 16.1 83.9 442
West South Central 24.5 75.5 331
East South Central 25.6 74.4 164
New England 4.7 95.3 128
Middle Atlantic 15.5 84.5 238
South Atlantic 19.2 80.8 380