CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2011


Table 1.1b: Skin-to-skin contact among vaginal births
by state
How many patients experience mother-infant skin-to-skin contact
for at least 30 minutes within 1 hour of uncomplicated vaginal birth
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 7.3 15.6 22.4 54.3 0.4 2731
State
AK 0.0 0.0 30.0 70.0 0.0 20
AL 8.7 26.1 23.9 41.3 0.0 46
AR 21.4 21.4 25.0 32.1 0.0 28
AZ 2.4 14.6 22.0 61.0 0.0 41
CA 0.9 3.2 16.1 79.3 0.5 217
CO 2.1 8.3 20.8 68.8 0.0 48
CT 8.3 12.5 8.3 66.7 4.2 24
DC 20.0 0.0 20.0 60.0 0.0 5
DE 16.7 0.0 16.7 66.7 0.0 6
FL 6.7 18.0 22.5 52.8 0.0 89
GA 12.0 21.3 14.7 50.7 1.3 75
HI 0.0 0.0 33.3 66.7 0.0 6
IA 8.5 26.8 16.9 47.9 0.0 71
ID 0.0 11.1 33.3 55.6 0.0 27
IL 12.1 21.5 25.2 41.1 0.0 107
IN 6.4 16.0 29.8 47.9 0.0 94
KS 6.6 24.6 31.1 37.7 0.0 61
KY 15.6 22.2 15.6 46.7 0.0 45
LA 13.7 13.7 23.5 49.0 0.0 51
MA 0.0 8.9 15.6 75.6 0.0 45
MD 0.0 13.3 36.7 46.7 3.3 30
ME 3.7 3.7 14.8 77.8 0.0 27
MI 9.1 18.2 28.6 44.2 0.0 77
MN 4.5 11.2 23.6 60.7 0.0 89
MO 9.4 15.6 28.1 46.9 0.0 64
MS 13.6 36.4 22.7 27.3 0.0 22
MT 7.1 17.9 10.7 64.3 0.0 28
NC 12.8 16.7 26.9 43.6 0.0 78
ND 9.1 36.4 18.2 36.4 0.0 11
NE 12.5 20.8 25.0 41.7 0.0 48
NH 0.0 0.0 9.5 90.5 0.0 21
NJ 4.7 7.0 34.9 53.5 0.0 43
NM 11.5 11.5 34.6 42.3 0.0 26
NV 26.7 13.3 6.7 53.3 0.0 15
NY 3.7 9.3 31.5 55.6 0.0 108
OH 7.4 19.1 23.4 50.0 0.0 94
OK 20.4 16.3 20.4 42.9 0.0 49
OR 1.9 1.9 18.9 77.4 0.0 53
PA 9.8 19.6 26.1 42.4 2.2 92
PI 0.0 20.0 20.0 60.0 0.0 5
PR 0.0 14.3 14.3 71.4 0.0 7
RI 0.0 0.0 33.3 66.7 0.0 6
SC 7.9 26.3 5.3 60.5 0.0 38
SD 20.0 20.0 10.0 50.0 0.0 20
TN 20.0 20.0 18.3 41.7 0.0 60
TX 6.5 15.2 26.3 50.7 1.4 217
UT 2.4 11.9 11.9 73.8 0.0 42
VA 13.6 20.5 13.6 50.0 2.3 44
VT 0.0 0.0 10.0 90.0 0.0 10
WA 1.5 16.2 14.7 67.6 0.0 68
WI 1.1 24.1 23.0 51.7 0.0 87
WV 7.1 32.1 25.0 35.7 0.0 28
WY 0.0 11.1 22.2 66.7 0.0 18

Table 1.2b: Skin-to-skin contact among Cesarean births
by state*
How many patients experience mother-infant skin-to-skin contact
for at least 30 minutes within 2 hours of uncomplicated Cesarean birth
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 18.2 18.8 19.9 42.8 0.2 2548
State
AK 0.0 18.2 9.1 72.7 0.0 11
AL 26.1 19.6 23.9 30.4 0.0 46
AR 57.1 7.1 14.3 21.4 0.0 28
AZ 11.1 30.6 13.9 44.4 0.0 36
CA 10.2 14.1 21.5 54.1 0.0 205
CO 6.5 15.2 17.4 60.9 0.0 46
CT 18.2 18.2 13.6 50.0 0.0 22
DC 25.0 50.0 0.0 25.0 0.0 4
DE 20.0 20.0 20.0 40.0 0.0 5
FL 24.7 16.9 20.8 36.4 1.3 77
GA 19.4 20.8 25.0 34.7 0.0 72
HI 14.3 42.9 14.3 28.6 0.0 7
IA 18.3 23.9 14.1 42.3 1.4 71
ID 4.0 4.0 24.0 68.0 0.0 25
IL 24.3 21.5 20.6 33.6 0.0 107
IN 16.5 24.2 19.8 39.6 0.0 91
KS 20.0 16.4 21.8 41.8 0.0 55
KY 25.0 29.5 13.6 31.8 0.0 44
LA 20.4 20.4 14.3 44.9 0.0 49
MA 6.8 4.5 15.9 72.7 0.0 44
MD 10.7 35.7 17.9 32.1 3.6 28
ME 0.0 4.2 16.7 79.2 0.0 24
MI 16.0 21.3 25.3 37.3 0.0 75
MN 6.0 20.5 27.7 45.8 0.0 83
MO 11.1 25.4 17.5 46.0 0.0 63
MS 50.0 15.0 15.0 20.0 0.0 20
MT 13.0 8.7 21.7 56.5 0.0 23
NC 17.3 28.0 16.0 38.7 0.0 75
ND 18.2 27.3 18.2 36.4 0.0 11
NE 18.8 14.6 18.8 47.9 0.0 48
NH 0.0 11.1 22.2 66.7 0.0 18
NJ 13.6 13.6 29.5 43.2 0.0 44
NM 17.4 34.8 17.4 30.4 0.0 23
NV 20.0 33.3 33.3 13.3 0.0 15
NY 16.3 26.0 23.1 33.7 1.0 104
OH 14.0 20.4 17.2 48.4 0.0 93
OK 18.8 20.8 12.5 47.9 0.0 48
OR 6.7 4.4 17.8 71.1 0.0 45
PA 23.3 16.3 30.2 30.2 0.0 86
PI 75.0 0.0 0.0 25.0 0.0 4
PR 42.9 14.3 42.9 0.0 0.0 7
RI 0.0 16.7 16.7 66.7 0.0 6
SC 35.3 17.6 20.6 26.5 0.0 34
SD 30.0 10.0 15.0 45.0 0.0 20
TN 33.3 16.7 22.2 27.8 0.0 54
TX 28.5 16.7 17.2 37.1 0.5 186
UT 8.6 14.3 22.9 54.3 0.0 35
VA 30.8 23.1 17.9 25.6 2.6 39
VT 10.0 10.0 20.0 60.0 0.0 10
WA 13.6 13.6 20.3 52.5 0.0 59
WI 17.9 17.9 16.7 47.4 0.0 78
WV 22.2 18.5 29.6 29.6 0.0 27
WY 5.6 16.7 5.6 72.2 0.0 18

Table 1.3b: Early breastfeeding initiation among vaginal births
by state
What percent of healthy breastfed infants are put to the breast
within 1 hour of uncomplicated vaginal birth
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more N
All 2.7 9.0 31.8 56.5 2697
State
AK 0.0 5.0 20.0 75.0 20
AL 2.2 17.4 30.4 50.0 46
AR 7.1 17.9 42.9 32.1 28
AZ 0.0 9.8 34.1 56.1 41
CA 0.9 8.3 30.0 60.8 217
CO 0.0 2.1 27.1 70.8 48
CT 8.3 8.3 33.3 50.0 24
DC 0.0 40.0 0.0 60.0 5
DE 0.0 16.7 33.3 50.0 6
FL 2.3 11.5 33.3 52.9 87
GA 2.8 11.1 37.5 48.6 72
HI 0.0 0.0 57.1 42.9 7
IA 0.0 11.6 29.0 59.4 69
ID 14.8 0.0 22.2 63.0 27
IL 3.8 13.2 34.0 49.1 106
IN 1.1 8.7 31.5 58.7 92
KS 1.7 5.0 38.3 55.0 60
KY 4.4 11.1 46.7 37.8 45
LA 3.9 9.8 39.2 47.1 51
MA 0.0 4.4 13.3 82.2 45
MD 0.0 6.7 36.7 56.7 30
ME 0.0 0.0 26.9 73.1 26
MI 2.6 10.5 31.6 55.3 76
MN 0.0 6.9 35.6 57.5 87
MO 3.1 9.4 37.5 50.0 64
MS 9.5 14.3 28.6 47.6 21
MT 0.0 17.9 32.1 50.0 28
NC 2.6 15.6 40.3 41.6 77
ND 0.0 9.1 9.1 81.8 11
NE 2.1 10.6 23.4 63.8 47
NH 0.0 0.0 9.5 90.5 21
NJ 0.0 7.0 41.9 51.2 43
NM 11.5 7.7 11.5 69.2 26
NV 6.7 26.7 33.3 33.3 15
NY 2.9 4.9 40.8 51.5 103
OH 2.2 7.7 25.3 64.8 91
OK 6.3 6.3 37.5 50.0 48
OR 1.9 7.5 28.3 62.3 53
PA 0.0 6.7 42.7 50.6 89
PI 20.0 20.0 20.0 40.0 5
PR 28.6 0.0 0.0 71.4 7
RI 0.0 0.0 33.3 66.7 6
SC 2.6 15.8 18.4 63.2 38
SD 10.0 5.0 40.0 45.0 20
TN 3.4 13.8 32.8 50.0 58
TX 6.0 8.8 32.9 52.3 216
UT 0.0 4.8 21.4 73.8 42
VA 4.5 9.1 38.6 47.7 44
VT 0.0 0.0 30.0 70.0 10
WA 1.5 4.5 16.4 77.6 67
WI 0.0 4.7 30.2 65.1 86
WV 3.6 21.4 25.0 50.0 28
WY 0.0 5.6 27.8 66.7 18

Table 1.4b: Early breastfeeding initiation among Cesarean births
by state*
What percent of healthy breastfed infants are put to the breast
within 2 hours of uncomplicated Cesarean birth
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more N
All 8.0 12.5 29.0 50.5 2538
State
AK 0.0 18.2 45.5 36.4 11
AL 10.9 19.6 30.4 39.1 46
AR 21.4 17.9 35.7 25.0 28
AZ 8.3 5.6 44.4 41.7 36
CA 7.4 17.2 27.6 47.8 203
CO 4.3 2.2 34.8 58.7 46
CT 4.5 13.6 31.8 50.0 22
DC 0.0 50.0 0.0 50.0 4
DE 0.0 0.0 40.0 60.0 5
FL 14.5 17.1 35.5 32.9 76
GA 2.9 27.1 21.4 48.6 70
HI 14.3 14.3 14.3 57.1 7
IA 4.3 8.6 22.9 64.3 70
ID 4.0 4.0 20.0 72.0 25
IL 7.5 19.6 26.2 46.7 107
IN 8.8 6.6 30.8 53.8 91
KS 0.0 7.1 35.7 57.1 56
KY 14.0 16.3 32.6 37.2 43
LA 12.2 22.4 26.5 38.8 49
MA 2.2 0.0 26.7 71.1 45
MD 7.1 10.7 35.7 46.4 28
ME 0.0 4.2 16.7 79.2 24
MI 5.3 6.7 32.0 56.0 75
MN 2.4 8.4 25.3 63.9 83
MO 3.2 7.9 39.7 49.2 63
MS 15.0 25.0 20.0 40.0 20
MT 4.3 8.7 34.8 52.2 23
NC 8.0 16.0 40.0 36.0 75
ND 0.0 0.0 18.2 81.8 11
NE 0.0 6.4 19.1 74.5 47
NH 0.0 0.0 5.6 94.4 18
NJ 9.3 18.6 27.9 44.2 43
NM 13.0 17.4 30.4 39.1 23
NV 13.3 46.7 20.0 20.0 15
NY 11.7 13.6 30.1 44.7 103
OH 3.3 6.5 21.7 68.5 92
OK 8.3 4.2 37.5 50.0 48
OR 2.2 4.3 17.4 76.1 46
PA 16.3 10.5 36.0 37.2 86
PI 25.0 50.0 0.0 25.0 4
PR 71.4 0.0 14.3 14.3 7
RI 0.0 0.0 50.0 50.0 6
SC 8.8 23.5 23.5 44.1 34
SD 5.3 15.8 21.1 57.9 19
TN 9.4 17.0 39.6 34.0 53
TX 19.9 12.4 27.4 40.3 186
UT 2.9 8.6 28.6 60.0 35
VA 10.3 17.9 33.3 38.5 39
VT 10.0 10.0 20.0 60.0 10
WA 3.4 8.5 22.0 66.1 59
WI 1.3 9.0 32.1 57.7 78
WV 3.7 11.1 40.7 44.4 27
WY 0.0 11.1 5.6 83.3 18

Table 1.5b: Performance of routine procedures while skin-to-skin among vaginal births
by state
How often are routine infant procedures performed while mother & infant
are skin-to-skin after uncomplicated vaginal birth
Rarely Sometimes Often Almost alwaysNot sure N
All 17.3 27.7 26.8 27.8 0.4 2729
State
AK 5.0 0.0 45.0 50.0 0.0 20
AL 19.6 43.5 23.9 13.0 0.0 46
AR 28.6 32.1 28.6 10.7 0.0 28
AZ 9.8 39.0 26.8 24.4 0.0 41
CA 8.7 17.0 23.4 50.5 0.5 218
CO 8.3 18.8 31.3 41.7 0.0 48
CT 8.3 29.2 29.2 33.3 0.0 24
DC 60.0 0.0 0.0 40.0 0.0 5
DE 33.3 33.3 16.7 16.7 0.0 6
FL 21.3 29.2 22.5 27.0 0.0 89
GA 20.3 40.5 31.1 8.1 0.0 74
HI 0.0 28.6 14.3 57.1 0.0 7
IA 19.7 32.4 22.5 25.4 0.0 71
ID 0.0 22.2 40.7 37.0 0.0 27
IL 22.9 38.5 25.7 12.8 0.0 109
IN 15.1 33.3 31.2 20.4 0.0 93
KS 24.6 29.5 26.2 19.7 0.0 61
KY 24.4 37.8 24.4 13.3 0.0 45
LA 29.4 27.5 17.6 25.5 0.0 51
MA 2.2 17.8 37.8 42.2 0.0 45
MD 13.3 33.3 26.7 26.7 0.0 30
ME 0.0 14.8 33.3 51.9 0.0 27
MI 13.0 28.6 33.8 23.4 1.3 77
MN 6.9 27.6 36.8 27.6 1.1 87
MO 18.8 29.7 21.9 29.7 0.0 64
MS 40.9 31.8 13.6 13.6 0.0 22
MT 18.5 29.6 11.1 40.7 0.0 27
NC 25.6 32.1 26.9 15.4 0.0 78
ND 27.3 36.4 18.2 18.2 0.0 11
NE 22.9 35.4 31.3 10.4 0.0 48
NH 0.0 4.8 23.8 71.4 0.0 21
NJ 15.9 25.0 25.0 31.8 2.3 44
NM 15.4 26.9 26.9 30.8 0.0 26
NV 40.0 13.3 40.0 6.7 0.0 15
NY 15.7 29.6 26.9 26.9 0.9 108
OH 18.1 26.6 34.0 21.3 0.0 94
OK 26.5 36.7 18.4 18.4 0.0 49
OR 3.8 7.5 35.8 50.9 1.9 53
PA 23.9 30.4 26.1 19.6 0.0 92
PI 0.0 40.0 0.0 60.0 0.0 5
PR 14.3 14.3 0.0 71.4 0.0 7
RI 0.0 16.7 16.7 66.7 0.0 6
SC 13.2 36.8 18.4 31.6 0.0 38
SD 15.8 21.1 26.3 31.6 5.3 19
TN 26.7 28.3 21.7 21.7 1.7 60
TX 27.3 26.9 20.8 24.1 0.9 216
UT 14.3 23.8 35.7 26.2 0.0 42
VA 22.7 27.3 22.7 25.0 2.3 44
VT 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 0.0 10
WA 10.3 14.7 35.3 39.7 0.0 68
WI 5.7 27.6 29.9 36.8 0.0 87
WV 25.0 32.1 28.6 14.3 0.0 28
WY 22.2 33.3 27.8 16.7 0.0 18