CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2011

1.1a: Skin-to-skin contact among vaginal births
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
How many patients experience mother-infant skin-to-skin contact
for at least 30 minutes within 1 hour of uncomplicated vaginal birth
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 7.3 15.5 22.3 54.4 0.4 2727
Type of facility
Birth center 0.7 0.7 2.1 95.8 0.7 142
Government hospital 10.3 19.5 22.9 46.8 0.6 524
Non-profit hospital 6.6 15.7 23.7 53.8 0.3 1698
Private hospital 9.3 15.9 22.0 52.5 0.3 345
Military hospital 5.6 0.0 44.4 50.0 0.0 18
Teaching hospital
Yes 6.3 13.6 30.1 49.0 1.0 206
No 7.8 16.6 22.9 52.4 0.3 2379
Size of facility
1-249 7.9 14.4 19.0 58.2 0.5 605
250-499 9.5 19.6 20.3 50.0 0.6 474
500-999 8.3 17.5 23.1 51.0 0.2 567
1000-1999 7.3 14.3 23.0 55.3 0.2 561
2000-4999 3.9 13.0 27.3 55.3 0.4 461
5000 or more 1.7 8.5 20.3 69.5 0.0 59
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 8.3 15.8 19.6 55.6 0.7 1066
Level 1 or 2 NICU 8.0 17.1 23.2 51.5 0.2 1062
Level 3 NICU 4.3 12.4 25.7 57.4 0.2 599
Census region
Pacific 1.1 5.2 17.4 76.1 0.3 368
Mountain 4.9 12.2 20.4 62.4 0.0 245
West North Central 8.5 19.6 23.7 48.2 0.0 363
East North Central 7.4 19.9 25.8 46.9 0.0 458
West South Central 10.8 15.7 24.7 48.0 0.9 344
East South Central 15.0 24.3 19.7 41.0 0.0 173
New England 2.3 6.0 13.5 77.4 0.8 133
Middle Atlantic 6.2 12.8 30.0 50.2 0.8 243
South Atlantic 9.5 19.5 20.3 50.0 0.8 400

Table 1.2a: Skin-to-skin contact among Cesarean births
by hospital type, size, NICU level, and region*
How many patients experience mother-infant skin-to-skin contact
for at least 30 minutes within 2 hours of uncomplicated Cesarean birth
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 18.3 18.8 19.9 42.8 0.2 2546
Type of facility
Government hospital 22.1 22.1 17.0 38.9 0.0 512
Non-profit hospital 15.6 17.9 21.0 45.1 0.3 1677
Private hospital 26.2 17.4 18.8 37.4 0.3 340
Military hospital 5.9 35.3 23.5 35.3 0.0 17
Teaching hospital
Yes 18.7 26.6 19.2 35.0 0.5 203
No 18.2 18.1 20.0 43.4 0.2 2343
Size of facility
1-249 18.6 15.5 20.8 45.1 0.0 457
250-499 21.6 18.3 18.1 41.7 0.2 458
500-999 18.2 20.9 18.2 42.4 0.2 559
1000-1999 17.1 18.5 20.1 44.0 0.4 557
2000-4999 16.9 20.7 22.4 39.6 0.4 455
5000 or more 11.7 16.7 21.7 50.0 0.0 60
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 20.7 17.2 19.9 42.1 0.1 900
Level 1 or 2 NICU 18.1 18.9 18.6 44.1 0.3 1054
Level 3 NICU 14.9 21.1 22.3 41.4 0.3 592
Census region
Pacific 10.9 13.3 19.9 55.9 0.0 331
Mountain 10.0 19.0 19.0 52.0 0.0 221
West North Central 15.1 20.3 20.0 44.3 0.3 350
East North Central 18.0 21.2 19.8 41.0 0.0 444
West South Central 28.4 17.1 15.5 38.7 0.3 310
East South Central 31.1 20.7 19.5 28.7 0.0 164
New England 6.5 8.9 16.9 67.7 0.0 124
Middle Atlantic 18.4 20.1 26.9 34.2 0.4 234
South Atlantic 22.8 22.6 20.9 32.9 0.8 368
*Note: Facilities not performing Cesareans are not included in these tabulations.

Table 1.3a: Early breastfeeding initiation among vaginal births
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
What percent of healthy breastfed infants are put to
the breast within 1 hour of uncomplicated vaginal birth
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more N
All 2.7 9.0 31.8 56.5 2694
Type of facility
Birth center 1.4 0.7 2.1 95.8 142
Government hospital 5.0 10.4 33.9 50.7 519
Non-profit hospital 1.9 8.7 33.1 56.3 1675
Private hospital 3.8 11.1 34.0 51.0 341
Military hospital 0.0 17.6 41.2 41.2 17
Teaching hospital
Yes 2.9 11.3 43.6 42.2 204
No 2.7 9.3 32.6 55.4 2348
Size of facility
1-249 3.2 8.4 22.4 66.1 598
250-499 4.5 6.6 28.7 60.2 470
500-999 2.3 11.3 31.8 54.6 560
1000-1999 2.3 7.7 36.8 53.2 555
2000-4999 0.9 10.6 39.6 48.9 452
5000 or more 3.4 11.9 45.8 39.0 59
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 3.0 8.5 25.7 62.7 1054
Level 1 or 2 NICU 2.9 9.9 33.5 53.8 1052
Level 3 NICU 1.7 8.2 39.8 50.3 588
Census region
Pacific 1.4 7.3 27.2 64.1 368
Mountain 3.3 7.8 26.1 62.9 245
West North Central 1.7 8.4 33.1 56.9 357
East North Central 2.0 9.1 30.6 58.3 451
West South Central 5.8 9.4 35.1 49.7 342
East South Central 4.1 14.1 35.3 46.5 170
New England 1.5 3.0 21.2 74.2 132
Middle Atlantic 1.3 6.0 41.7 51.1 235
South Atlantic 3.0 12.9 33.2 50.8 394

Table 1.4a: Early breastfeeding initiation among Cesarean births
by hospital type, size, NICU level, and region*
What percent of healthy breastfed infants are put to the breast
within 2 hours of uncomplicated Cesarean birth
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more N
All 8.0 12.5 29.0 50.5 2536
Type of facility
Government hospital 11.1 16.2 25.8 46.9 512
Non-profit hospital 6.4 10.5 29.5 53.6 1670
Private hospital 11.9 15.7 31.5 40.9 337
Military hospital 0.0 23.5 35.3 41.2 17
Teaching hospital
Yes 14.7 17.6 29.4 38.2 204
No 7.5 12.0 29.0 51.5 2332
Size of facility
1-249 5.9 9.4 27.4 57.3 457
250-499 8.6 10.3 28.3 52.9 456
500-999 7.7 13.1 27.3 51.8 556
1000-1999 8.1 13.0 29.4 49.5 554
2000-4999 10.2 16.6 31.3 41.9 453
5000 or more 6.7 10.0 41.7 41.7 60
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 7.7 11.8 27.2 53.2 896
Level 1 or 2 NICU 8.0 11.9 28.6 51.5 1051
Level 3 NICU 8.7 14.4 32.4 44.5 589
Census region
Pacific 6.1 14.2 25.2 54.5 330
Mountain 5.9 10.0 29.9 54.3 221
West North Central 2.3 8.0 27.9 61.8 348
East North Central 5.4 10.2 28.2 56.2 443
West South Central 17.1 13.2 29.7 40.0 310
East South Central 11.7 18.5 32.7 37.0 162
New England 2.4 4.0 23.2 70.4 125
Middle Atlantic 12.9 13.4 31.9 41.8 232
South Atlantic 9.3 18.4 32.1 40.3 365
*Note: Facilities not performing Cesareans are not included in these tabulations.

Table 1.5a: Performance of routine procedures while skin-to-skin among vaginal births
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
How often are routine infant procedures performed while mother
& infant are skin-to-skin after uncomplicated vaginal birth
Rarely Sometimes Often Almost always Not sure N
All 17.4 27.6 26.8 27.8 0.4 2725
Type of facility
Birth center 2.1 0.7 2.8 94.4 0.0 142
Government hospital 20.6 30.3 27.5 21.2 0.4 524
Non-profit hospital 16.4 27.9 29.4 25.9 0.4 1697
Private hospital 23.5 32.8 22.7 20.1 0.9 344
Military hospital 16.7 33.3 33.3 16.7 0.0 18
Teaching hospital
Yes 12.1 37.7 27.1 23.2 0.0 207
No 18.7 28.4 28.2 24.2 0.5 2376
Size of facility
1-249 16.1 23.9 20.9 38.5 0.7 603
250-499 18.8 29.8 24.9 26.0 0.4 473
500-999 21.0 25.7 31.0 22.0 0.2 567
1000-1999 18.0 29.2 27.8 24.7 0.4 562
2000-4999 13.9 29.6 30.5 25.5 0.4 459
5000 or more 4.9 36.1 24.6 34.4 0.0 61
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 15.8 26.0 25.3 32.5 0.5 1065
Level 1 or 2 NICU 21.3 26.7 28.4 23.2 0.5 1061
Level 3 NICU 13.2 32.2 26.9 27.5 0.2 599
Census region
Pacific 7.8 14.6 28.1 48.9 0.5 370
Mountain 13.5 26.2 29.9 30.3 0.0 244
West North Central 17.8 30.3 27.8 23.6 0.6 360
East North Central 15.5 31.2 30.7 22.4 0.2 459
West South Central 27.7 28.9 20.7 22.2 0.6 343
East South Central 26.0 35.3 22.0 16.2 0.6 173
New England 3.0 17.3 31.6 48.1 0.0 133
Middle Atlantic 18.9 29.1 26.2 25.0 0.8 244
South Atlantic 21.6 32.3 24.6 21.3 0.3 399