CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2009

Table 7.1b: Elements of a written hospital policy
by state
In-service training Prenatal breastfeeding classes Asking about mothers' feeding plans Early initiation of breastfeeding Teaching lactation maintenance during separation Exclusive breastfeeding 24 hr/day rooming-in Breastfeeding on-demand Pacifier use Referral of mothers with breastfeeding problems N
All 49.9 48.8 75.1 83.1 65.1 59.4 63.3 74.8 44.6 66.9 2666
State
AK 36.8 36.8 73.7 77.8 47.4 55.6 73.7 73.7 44.4 76.5 19
AL 58.3 56.3 75.0 81.6 62.5 55.3 52.1 70.8 47.9 64.4 48
AR 52.6 34.2 84.2 84.0 57.9 50.0 50.0 57.9 44.7 62.9 38
AZ 39.5 36.8 71.1 80.6 60.5 55.3 73.7 71.1 34.2 54.1 38
CA 55.0 54.5 84.2 92.4 80.7 68.8 80.7 86.6 56.4 82.3 202
CO 32.7 36.7 67.3 82.6 69.4 61.2 67.3 79.6 51.0 75.6 49
CT 58.3 75.0 87.5 95.5 79.2 66.7 83.3 75.0 62.5 76.2 24
DC 50.0 50.0 100.0 100.0 83.3 83.3 66.7 83.3 33.3 83.3 6
DE 20.0 60.0 60.0 75.0 80.0 100.0 80.0 100.0 40.0 60.0 5
FL 43.4 48.5 73.7 84.3 65.7 57.6 59.6 66.7 38.4 66.7 99
GA 47.7 43.1 73.8 81.5 64.6 55.4 60.0 70.8 40.0 67.7 65
HI 44.4 44.4 66.7 87.5 66.7 55.6 100.0 100.0 33.3 77.8 9
IA 56.5 43.5 71.0 78.9 49.3 50.7 44.9 66.7 34.8 57.8 69
ID 53.3 50.0 66.7 88.0 50.0 60.0 73.3 73.3 36.7 55.2 30
IL 45.6 53.4 70.9 80.2 63.1 58.3 58.3 68.9 38.8 58.9 103
IN 52.9 48.2 75.3 86.8 58.8 62.4 51.8 72.9 47.1 61.0 85
KS 38.5 43.1 63.1 78.2 56.9 47.7 56.9 76.9 33.8 57.6 65
KY 54.8 38.1 73.8 79.4 66.7 54.8 57.1 78.6 45.2 59.5 42
LA 57.8 53.3 93.3 94.3 75.6 66.7 60.0 80.0 55.6 74.4 45
MA 60.9 63.0 89.1 97.7 89.1 80.4 78.3 87.0 71.7 93.2 46
MD 34.6 53.8 88.5 95.8 84.6 72.0 69.2 92.3 46.2 68.0 26
ME 57.7 57.7 84.6 91.3 65.4 73.1 84.6 88.5 73.1 80.8 26
MI 57.1 50.6 71.4 82.9 74.0 59.7 61.0 75.3 48.1 65.8 77
MN 37.9 52.9 65.5 77.6 55.2 60.9 62.1 75.9 49.4 67.9 87
MO 49.2 41.0 73.8 76.0 65.6 57.4 60.7 83.6 42.6 70.9 61
MS 42.9 46.4 67.9 52.9 57.1 46.4 50.0 42.9 21.4 42.3 28
MT 34.6 46.2 65.4 72.0 42.3 42.3 69.2 53.8 30.8 56.0 26
NC 47.1 46.4 66.7 75.0 69.6 60.9 59.4 75.4 39.1 57.1 69
ND 58.3 41.7 58.3 83.3 83.3 66.7 50.0 91.7 50.0 60.0 12
NE 33.3 51.0 71.4 75.0 44.9 42.9 61.2 67.3 38.8 54.5 49
NH 61.9 61.9 76.2 94.7 61.9 71.4 71.4 85.7 61.9 81.0 21
NJ 65.1 51.2 83.7 92.5 83.7 65.1 65.1 86.0 55.8 86.0 43
NM 20.0 15.0 50.0 50.0 35.0 50.0 65.0 40.0 25.0 36.8 20
NV 26.7 26.7 46.7 53.8 40.0 40.0 46.7 40.0 26.7 33.3 15
NY 51.3 61.1 81.4 93.3 85.8 77.0 77.9 90.3 63.7 83.8 113
OH 59.4 52.6 72.2 83.9 73.2 63.9 67.0 80.4 50.0 70.8 97
OK 49.0 39.2 66.7 66.7 52.9 49.0 54.9 56.9 27.5 42.6 51
OR 47.2 62.3 83.0 90.0 66.0 67.9 81.1 83.0 35.8 74.5 53
PA 57.5 58.6 75.9 87.7 66.7 58.6 60.9 82.8 47.1 75.0 87
PR 60.0 66.7 86.7 84.6 60.0 33.3 60.0 66.7 33.3 71.4 15
RI 85.7 85.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 85.7 100.0 85.7 71.4 85.7 7
SC 50.0 41.7 80.6 82.1 61.1 47.2 55.6 72.2 36.1 65.7 36
SD 47.6 42.9 76.2 72.2 42.9 42.9 57.1 61.9 28.6 65.0 21
TN 59.6 43.9 78.9 84.6 63.2 57.9 61.4 68.4 40.4 58.9 57
TX 54.7 44.3 71.9 74.8 54.7 51.6 54.2 63.0 34.9 57.9 192
UT 51.9 44.4 59.3 72.0 55.6 51.9 40.7 66.7 33.3 48.0 27
VA 55.1 44.9 73.5 79.1 71.4 49.0 63.3 73.5 38.8 79.5 49
VT 50.0 60.0 90.0 90.0 70.0 90.0 90.0 100.0 80.0 100.0 10
WA 43.3 37.3 83.6 90.9 62.7 61.2 74.6 79.1 41.8 68.3 67
WI 43.3 54.4 78.9 82.9 63.3 65.6 50.0 80.0 50.0 71.6 90
WV 39.3 32.1 78.6 91.7 64.3 57.1 60.7 82.1 32.1 42.3 28
WY 52.6 26.3 68.4 62.5 31.6 42.1 63.2 42.1 36.8 37.5 19

Table 7.2b: Modes used to inform staff of breastfeeding policies
by state
In-service training Policy is posted Newsletter New staff training New staff orientation Staff meeting Word of mouth N
All 68.7 76.3 13.3 69.0 59.4 72.2 48.4 2666
State
AK 47.4 63.2 5.3 68.4 52.6 52.6 42.1 19
AL 66.7 83.3 12.5 66.7 58.3 66.7 50.0 48
AR 76.3 84.2 10.5 63.2 52.6 71.1 63.2 38
AZ 73.7 84.2 18.4 76.3 52.6 76.3 42.1 38
CA 77.2 84.2 15.3 72.3 65.8 79.7 48.5 202
CO 59.2 85.7 18.4 77.6 65.3 75.5 57.1 49
CT 79.2 70.8 25.0 75.0 58.3 75.0 33.3 24
DC 66.7 83.3 33.3 100.0 50.0 66.7 66.7 6
DE 20.0 80.0 0.0 40.0 20.0 100.0 80.0 5
FL 66.7 70.7 7.1 61.6 57.6 68.7 42.4 99
GA 84.6 76.9 15.4 72.3 60.0 69.2 40.0 65
HI 55.6 77.8 33.3 44.4 66.7 66.7 77.8 9
IA 62.3 63.8 7.2 62.3 59.4 72.5 53.6 69
ID 76.7 86.7 13.3 70.0 70.0 80.0 53.3 30
IL 64.1 76.7 17.5 65.0 56.3 73.8 51.5 103
IN 63.5 76.5 15.3 63.5 57.6 69.4 52.9 85
KS 52.3 69.2 9.2 63.1 55.4 67.7 50.8 65
KY 61.9 78.6 7.1 73.8 66.7 73.8 40.5 42
LA 80.0 88.9 4.4 75.6 73.3 77.8 48.9 45
MA 73.9 97.8 23.9 84.8 76.1 82.6 56.5 46
MD 69.2 84.6 7.7 96.2 80.8 73.1 38.5 26
ME 76.9 92.3 7.7 88.5 73.1 88.5 61.5 26
MI 61.0 81.8 16.9 64.9 49.4 64.9 44.2 77
MN 63.2 72.4 20.7 58.6 52.9 66.7 41.4 87
MO 75.4 77.0 19.7 77.0 59.0 72.1 52.5 61
MS 67.9 64.3 3.6 60.7 42.9 57.1 57.1 28
MT 61.5 65.4 3.8 50.0 42.3 69.2 53.8 26
NC 69.6 71.0 8.7 62.3 55.1 76.8 37.7 69
ND 75.0 66.7 33.3 66.7 50.0 75.0 50.0 12
NE 53.1 57.1 10.2 61.2 40.8 63.3 55.1 49
NH 71.4 61.9 19.0 71.4 52.4 85.7 28.6 21
NJ 90.7 86.0 18.6 76.7 72.1 81.4 51.2 43
NM 50.0 70.0 10.0 35.0 30.0 60.0 55.0 20
NV 46.7 33.3 0.0 53.3 20.0 40.0 40.0 15
NY 69.9 85.8 14.2 80.5 65.5 70.8 44.2 113
OH 72.2 80.4 17.5 74.2 64.9 76.3 52.6 97
OK 58.8 70.6 3.9 54.9 51.0 66.7 60.8 51
OR 69.8 81.1 15.1 69.8 62.3 79.2 60.4 53
PA 73.6 83.9 8.0 78.2 72.4 74.7 54.0 87
PR 73.3 46.7 20.0 73.3 60.0 73.3 46.7 15
RI 71.4 100.0 14.3 85.7 71.4 85.7 71.4 7
SC 55.6 72.2 2.8 69.4 55.6 63.9 47.2 36
SD 71.4 57.1 14.3 76.2 66.7 71.4 38.1 21
TN 77.2 71.9 8.8 73.7 61.4 78.9 49.1 57
TX 68.8 63.0 8.9 63.0 56.8 67.7 41.1 192
UT 66.7 66.7 25.9 55.6 51.9 81.5 48.1 27
VA 69.4 83.7 16.3 71.4 63.3 77.6 53.1 49
VT 90.0 90.0 10.0 90.0 90.0 90.0 70.0 10
WA 71.6 76.1 23.9 73.1 61.2 64.2 46.3 67
WI 67.8 80.0 15.6 74.4 55.6 76.7 46.7 90
WV 60.7 82.1 3.6 64.3 64.3 60.7 35.7 28
WY 73.7 68.4 5.3 47.4 36.8 63.2 31.6 19

Table 7.3b: Documentation of breastfeeding practices
by state
Does the facility document rates of breastfeeding among patients
No/not sure Only intention at admission Yes, rates are assessed N
All 19.9 13.1 67.0 2638
State
AK 26.3 5.3 68.4 19
AL 14.9 14.9 70.2 47
AR 28.9 15.8 55.3 38
AZ 31.6 21.1 47.4 38
CA 20.0 8.5 71.5 200
CO 24.5 8.2 67.3 49
CT 4.3 0.0 95.7 23
DC 33.3 0.0 66.7 6
DE 0.0 0.0 100.0 5
FL 19.6 12.4 68.0 97
GA 24.6 12.3 63.1 65
HI 11.1 0.0 88.9 9
IA 29.0 13.0 58.0 69
ID 10.0 16.7 73.3 30
IL 20.0 14.0 66.0 100
IN 16.7 10.7 72.6 84
KS 26.6 12.5 60.9 64
KY 21.4 19.0 59.5 42
LA 18.2 9.1 72.7 44
MA 2.2 13.3 84.4 45
MD 15.4 7.7 76.9 26
ME 0.0 3.8 96.2 26
MI 17.1 17.1 65.8 76
MN 31.0 14.9 54.0 87
MO 21.3 16.4 62.3 61
MS 51.9 7.4 40.7 27
MT 23.1 11.5 65.4 26
NC 14.5 18.8 66.7 69
ND 16.7 25.0 58.3 12
NE 29.2 8.3 62.5 48
NH 9.5 19.0 71.4 21
NJ 4.7 4.7 90.7 43
NM 15.8 15.8 68.4 19
NV 7.1 50.0 42.9 14
NY 3.6 12.5 83.9 112
OH 1.1 17.9 81.1 95
OK 33.3 13.7 52.9 51
OR 20.8 7.5 71.7 53
PA 18.4 16.1 65.5 87
PR 50.0 14.3 35.7 14
RI 0.0 14.3 85.7 7
SC 25.0 19.4 55.6 36
SD 23.8 23.8 52.4 21
TN 17.5 19.3 63.2 57
TX 30.2 11.6 58.2 189
UT 26.9 15.4 57.7 26
VA 16.3 20.4 63.3 49
VT 0.0 0.0 100.0 10
WA 28.8 13.6 57.6 66
WI 11.1 7.8 81.1 90
WV 33.3 14.8 51.9 27
WY 31.6 10.5 57.9 19

Table 7.4b: Supports offered to breastfeeding staff members
by state
Designated room
to express milk
On-site
child care
Electric breast
pump provided
Permission to use
breaks to express milk
Breastfeeding
support group
Lactation
consultant
available
Paid
maternity
leave
N
All 72.2 12.9 78.2 94.6 19.3 69.8 32.1 2666
State
AK 73.7 26.3 78.9 100.0 21.1 63.2 42.1 19
AL 70.8 8.3 72.9 97.9 22.9 72.9 25.0 48
AR 50.0 10.5 71.1 97.4 0.0 52.6 15.8 38
AZ 73.7 15.8 78.9 92.1 21.1 68.4 42.1 38
CA 75.2 9.4 79.7 91.6 22.8 69.8 57.4 202
CO 83.7 14.3 77.6 95.9 12.2 81.6 16.3 49
CT 91.7 25.0 91.7 95.8 41.7 75.0 29.2 24
DC 66.7 16.7 100.0 100.0 16.7 100.0 50.0 6
DE 60.0 20.0 80.0 100.0 0.0 80.0 0.0 5
FL 69.7 17.2 83.8 92.9 25.3 72.7 17.2 99
GA 64.6 12.3 83.1 93.8 10.8 70.8 12.3 65
HI 44.4 11.1 77.8 88.9 11.1 66.7 33.3 9
IA 72.5 15.9 76.8 98.6 23.2 60.9 47.8 69
ID 46.7 13.3 70.0 86.7 23.3 76.7 43.3 30
IL 74.8 21.4 86.4 91.3 16.5 74.8 30.1 103
IN 76.5 14.1 83.5 95.3 24.7 70.6 24.7 85
KS 64.6 9.2 63.1 96.9 13.8 55.4 30.8 65
KY 54.8 19.0 81.0 95.2 7.1 61.9 31.0 42
LA 64.4 4.4 66.7 93.3 17.8 60.0 13.3 45
MA 82.6 19.6 91.3 100.0 39.1 89.1 23.9 46
MD 80.8 26.9 84.6 92.3 26.9 84.6 19.2 26
ME 88.5 11.5 92.3 96.2 34.6 84.6 38.5 26
MI 85.7 22.1 90.9 97.4 20.8 75.3 48.1 77
MN 72.4 2.3 64.4 97.7 8.0 71.3 33.3 87
MO 75.4 14.8 80.3 96.7 26.2 68.9 21.3 61
MS 60.7 10.7 57.1 89.3 7.1 53.6 17.9 28
MT 61.5 11.5 61.5 96.2 7.7 73.1 34.6 26
NC 79.7 13.0 87.0 95.7 14.5 75.4 26.1 69
ND 58.3 0.0 66.7 91.7 16.7 83.3 8.3 12
NE 53.1 16.3 55.1 98.0 14.3 49.0 26.5 49
NH 85.7 28.6 85.7 95.2 42.9 85.7 19.0 21
NJ 88.4 39.5 97.7 97.7 34.9 74.4 67.4 43
NM 55.0 10.0 55.0 90.0 15.0 40.0 25.0 20
NV 46.7 6.7 73.3 80.0 13.3 46.7 26.7 15
NY 77.9 13.3 85.8 96.5 23.9 86.7 34.5 113
OH 88.7 8.2 93.8 97.9 28.9 87.6 30.9 97
OK 62.7 9.8 72.5 98.0 5.9 49.0 23.5 51
OR 69.8 11.3 69.8 90.6 22.6 69.8 30.2 53
PA 79.3 13.8 81.6 100.0 26.4 78.2 29.9 87
PR 66.7 0.0 26.7 80.0 33.3 66.7 86.7 15
RI 100.0 0.0 85.7 100.0 42.9 71.4 14.3 7
SC 75.0 8.3 80.6 91.7 16.7 66.7 44.4 36
SD 76.2 4.8 52.4 95.2 9.5 57.1 38.1 21
TN 59.6 10.5 84.2 91.2 17.5 57.9 29.8 57
TX 66.1 5.2 66.7 89.6 14.1 55.2 21.9 192
UT 77.8 14.8 81.5 96.3 14.8 66.7 29.6 27
VA 71.4 26.5 87.8 95.9 16.3 77.6 32.7 49
VT 70.0 0.0 90.0 100.0 50.0 80.0 30.0 10
WA 70.1 9.0 74.6 91.0 9.0 56.7 28.4 67
WI 78.9 11.1 83.3 96.7 17.8 86.7 50.0 90
WV 67.9 3.6 64.3 92.9 14.3 60.7 21.4 28
WY 47.4 26.3 89.5 100.0 5.3 57.9 26.3 19

Table 7.5b: Facility's receipt of free formula
by state
Does the facility receive infant formula free of charge
Yes No Not sure N
All 87.2 10.5 2.3 2646
State
AK 47.4 42.1 10.5 19
AL 95.7 4.3 0.0 47
AR 94.6 2.7 2.7 37
AZ 92.1 5.3 2.6 38
CA 73.3 25.7 1.0 202
CO 85.7 12.2 2.0 49
CT 83.3 12.5 4.2 24
DC 83.3 16.7 0.0 6
DE 60.0 40.0 0.0 5
FL 85.7 13.3 1.0 98
GA 98.4 1.6 0.0 64
HI 100.0 0.0 0.0 8
IA 92.8 1.4 5.8 69
ID 86.7 6.7 6.7 30
IL 96.1 2.9 1.0 103
IN 87.1 10.6 2.4 85
KS 92.3 3.1 4.6 65
KY 90.5 7.1 2.4 42
LA 95.6 2.2 2.2 45
MA 84.8 15.2 0.0 46
MD 84.6 15.4 0.0 26
ME 76.9 23.1 0.0 26
MI 96.1 1.3 2.6 76
MN 87.4 6.9 5.7 87
MO 95.1 3.3 1.6 61
MS 96.4 0.0 3.6 28
MT 92.0 8.0 0.0 25
NC 95.6 2.9 1.5 68
ND 100.0 0.0 0.0 12
NE 95.7 4.3 0.0 47
NH 71.4 28.6 0.0 21
NJ 97.7 0.0 2.3 43
NM 70.0 25.0 5.0 20
NV 78.6 14.3 7.1 14
NY 91.2 7.1 1.8 113
OH 92.6 7.4 0.0 95
OK 100.0 0.0 0.0 50
OR 65.4 28.8 5.8 52
PA 92.0 5.7 2.3 87
PR 92.9 7.1 0.0 14
RI 57.1 42.9 0.0 7
SC 80.6 16.7 2.8 36
SD 95.2 0.0 4.8 21
TN 89.5 10.5 0.0 57
TX 80.4 15.3 4.2 189
UT 88.9 7.4 3.7 27
VA 89.8 10.2 0.0 49
VT 80.0 20.0 0.0 10
WA 67.2 28.4 4.5 67
WI 85.6 12.2 2.2 90
WV 92.9 3.6 3.6 28
WY 94.4 5.6 0.0 18

Table 7.6b: Inclusion of breastfeeding in prenatal patient education
by state
Does the facility include breastfeeding
as component of prenatal education
No/not sure Yes N
All 7.2 92.8 2617
State
AK 26.3 73.7 19
AL 10.6 89.4 47
AR 23.7 76.3 38
AZ 10.8 89.2 37
CA 8.6 91.4 198
CO 6.1 93.9 49
CT 4.2 95.8 24
DC 0.0 100.0 6
DE 0.0 100.0 5
FL 1.0 99.0 97
GA 9.2 90.8 65
HI 0.0 100.0 9
IA 1.5 98.5 68
ID 0.0 100.0 30
IL 2.0 98.0 102
IN 3.6 96.4 84
KS 10.8 89.2 65
KY 11.9 88.1 42
LA 13.6 86.4 44
MA 2.2 97.8 46
MD 7.7 92.3 26
ME 0.0 100.0 26
MI 4.1 95.9 74
MN 3.5 96.5 86
MO 6.9 93.1 58
MS 14.8 85.2 27
MT 3.8 96.2 26
NC 5.9 94.1 68
ND 16.7 83.3 12
NE 8.2 91.8 49
NH 0.0 100.0 21
NJ 4.7 95.3 43
NM 10.0 90.0 20
NV 14.3 85.7 14
NY 1.8 98.2 112
OH 0.0 100.0 95
OK 22.9 77.1 48
OR 3.8 96.2 53
PA 3.7 96.3 82
PR 35.7 64.3 14
RI 0.0 100.0 6
SC 5.6 94.4 36
SD 5.0 95.0 20
TN 1.8 98.2 57
TX 16.7 83.3 186
UT 16.0 84.0 25
VA 0.0 100.0 48
VT 20.0 80.0 10
WA 15.4 84.6 65
WI 1.1 98.9 89
WV 10.7 89.3 28
WY 11.1 88.9 18

Table 7.7b: Existence of a designated lactation coordinator
by state
Does the facility have a designated lactation coordinator
Yes No N
All 72.4 27.6 2650
State
AK 61.1 38.9 18
AL 75.0 25.0 48
AR 50.0 50.0 38
AZ 78.4 21.6 37
CA 77.1 22.9 201
CO 87.8 12.2 49
CT 79.2 20.8 24
DC 100.0 0.0 6
DE 80.0 20.0 5
FL 73.7 26.3 99
GA 73.8 26.2 65
HI 44.4 55.6 9
IA 66.7 33.3 69
ID 80.0 20.0 30
IL 81.4 18.6 102
IN 72.6 27.4 84
KS 53.8 46.2 65
KY 61.9 38.1 42
LA 62.2 37.8 45
MA 89.1 10.9 46
MD 88.5 11.5 26
ME 84.6 15.4 26
MI 77.9 22.1 77
MN 70.1 29.9 87
MO 73.8 26.2 61
MS 60.7 39.3 28
MT 76.9 23.1 26
NC 72.5 27.5 69
ND 50.0 50.0 12
NE 60.4 39.6 48
NH 90.5 9.5 21
NJ 81.0 19.0 42
NM 40.0 60.0 20
NV 64.3 35.7 14
NY 83.2 16.8 113
OH 96.9 3.1 97
OK 54.9 45.1 51
OR 69.2 30.8 52
PA 79.3 20.7 87
PR 64.3 35.7 14
RI 100.0 0.0 7
SC 54.3 45.7 35
SD 61.9 38.1 21
TN 56.1 43.9 57
TX 59.3 40.7 189
UT 70.4 29.6 27
VA 79.6 20.4 49
VT 70.0 30.0 10
WA 63.6 36.4 66
WI 86.5 13.5 89
WV 57.1 42.9 28
WY 63.2 36.8 19