CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2009

Table 7.1a: Elements of a written hospital policy
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
In-service training Prenatal
breastfeeding
classes
Asking about mothers' feeding plans Early initiation of breastfeeding Teaching lactation maintenance during separation Exclusive breastfeeding 24 hr/day rooming-in Breastfeeding on-demand Pacifier use Referral of mothers with breastfeeding problems N
All 50.1 48.9 75.2 83.3 65.2 59.5 63.5 74.9 44.6 67.1 2664
Type of facility
Birth center 44.9 68.6 79.7 86.5 43.2 40.7 51.7 72.9 28.8 74.6 118
Government hospital 49.2 42.9 70.2 77.6 55.0 53.0 62.8 68.5 38.7 57.4 524
Non-profit hospital 51.2 50.3 76.3 84.9 69.9 64.5 65.9 78.0 49.0 70.3 1671
Private hospital 46.5 42.2 75.1 81.3 65.0 50.9 55.0 69.9 37.4 62.3 329
Military hospital 66.7 81.0 90.5 90.0 76.2 61.9 90.5 76.2 52.4 84.2 21
Teaching hospital
Yes 55.4 54.2 81.4 92.1 85.3 71.2 70.1 86.4 58.2 80.4 177
No 49.9 47.6 74.5 82.4 64.8 59.5 63.6 74.2 44.4 65.7 2368
Size of facility
0-249 42.9 42.5 68.5 73.3 44.2 44.2 61.6 65.5 29.8 54.9 591
250-499 46.5 47.6 77.6 82.4 57.7 54.8 59.2 72.1 41.4 60.6 456
500-999 47.7 50.4 74.0 83.3 66.1 61.6 63.2 74.2 41.7 64.2 554
1000-1999 55.3 52.3 79.5 89.7 79.0 68.5 68.2 81.1 56.1 76.5 528
2000-4999 58.0 52.6 77.5 88.3 81.0 69.0 65.6 82.5 54.4 78.8 462
5000 or more 59.7 49.2 79.4 89.1 88.9 76.2 61.9 85.7 65.1 86.9 63
Unknown 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 10.0 40.0 60.0 60.0 40.0 50.0 10
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 44.4 45.1 72.9 77.6 52.6 51.5 63.0 71.0 37.5 59.4 1086
Level 1 or 2 NICU 51.3 49.4 75.6 85.7 67.9 61.2 63.3 74.4 44.5 67.4 1022
Level 3 NICU 58.8 55.4 78.8 89.0 85.1 72.1 64.9 83.6 58.8 80.9 556
Census region
Pacific 50.7 51.3 82.7 90.9 72.8 65.9 79.9 84.4 49.1 77.9 353
Mountain 39.5 37.2 64.1 74.5 52.5 52.9 64.6 63.7 36.8 54.6 223
West North Central 44.0 46.1 68.8 77.5 55.0 52.8 57.2 74.3 40.3 62.5 362
East North Central 51.6 52.1 73.8 83.4 66.5 62.1 57.9 75.6 46.7 65.8 451
West South Central 54.2 43.7 75.7 77.4 57.8 53.2 54.8 64.0 37.8 58.6 325
East South Central 55.4 46.3 74.9 78.1 62.9 54.6 56.0 67.4 40.6 57.9 175
New England 60.4 64.9 86.6 95.1 77.6 76.1 81.3 85.8 69.4 85.9 134
Middle Atlantic 55.8 58.7 79.8 91.3 78.9 68.2 69.8 86.8 56.6 81.5 242
South Atlantic 46.5 46.4 75.2 82.9 68.2 57.0 61.2 73.9 38.3 65.5 399

Table 7.2a: Modes used to inform staff of breastfeeding policies by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
In-service training Policy is posted Newsletter New staff training New staff orientation Staff meeting Word of mouth N
All 68.8 76.4 13.3 69.1 59.5 72.4 48.5 2664
Type of facility
Birth center 58.5 50.0 2.5 55.9 39.8 55.1 48.3 118
Government hospital 64.1 73.1 9.0 60.5 52.5 68.7 44.8 524
Non-profit hospital 70.7 79.5 16.3 73.4 62.9 74.2 50.4 1671
Private hospital 70.2 75.4 9.4 66.3 60.2 76.3 45.3 329
Military hospital 71.4 81.0 0.0 66.7 61.9 57.1 42.9 21
Teaching hospital
Yes 80.8 87.0 23.2 87.0 76.3 75.7 55.4 177
No 68.5 76.9 13.0 68.5 59.2 73.0 48.0 2368
Size of facility
0-249 56.3 63.8 4.2 56.3 45.2 61.9 45.2 591
250-499 62.3 72.6 6.1 64.5 53.5 71.1 45.2 456
500-999 67.1 77.6 11.4 68.1 57.6 73.3 48.2 554
1000-1999 77.1 85.0 19.3 74.6 67.4 79.4 52.3 528
2000-4999 82.5 84.2 24.9 82.9 74.5 77.9 50.4 462
5000 or more 82.5 87.3 30.2 87.3 79.4 77.8 58.7 63
Unknown 40.0 50.0 10.0 50.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 10
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 59.9 68.6 7.2 61.5 50.0 66.0 43.6 1086
Level 1 or 2 NICU 70.5 79.3 13.9 69.2 61.1 75.0 50.6 1022
Level 3 NICU 83.1 86.5 23.9 83.8 75.0 80.0 54.3 556
Census region
Pacific 73.1 81.0 16.7 71.4 63.7 75.1 50.4 353
Mountain 65.0 74.9 13.9 62.8 51.1 71.7 49.3 223
West North Central 62.7 68.0 14.4 64.9 54.7 69.1 49.2 362
East North Central 66.1 79.2 16.6 68.7 57.2 72.7 49.9 451
West South Central 69.8 70.5 7.7 63.7 57.8 69.5 48.0 325
East South Central 69.1 75.4 8.6 69.7 58.9 70.9 48.6 175
New England 76.1 85.8 18.7 82.1 69.4 83.6 50.7 134
Middle Atlantic 74.8 85.1 12.8 78.9 69.0 74.4 49.2 242
South Atlantic 68.7 74.7 10.0 68.7 59.6 71.2 43.4 399

Table 7.3a: Documentation of breastfeeding practices
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
Does the facility document rates of breastfeeding among patients
No/not sure Only intention
at admission
Yes, rates
are assessed
N
All 20.0 13.1 66.9 2640
Type of facility
Birth center 2.6 3.4 94.0 117
Government hospital 23.8 13.8 62.4 521
Non-profit hospital 17.3 13.7 68.9 1655
Private hospital 33.2 12.3 54.5 325
Military hospital 28.6 9.5 61.9 21
Teaching hospital
Yes 12.1 10.3 77.6 174
No 21.5 13.8 64.8 2348
Size of facility
0-249 24.5 10.4 65.1 588
250-499 26.3 11.7 62.0 453
500-999 20.9 14.7 64.5 546
1000-1999 13.4 16.5 70.1 521
2000-4999 16.3 12.8 70.9 461
5000 or more 9.7 9.7 80.6 62
Unknown 0.0 0.0 100.0 9
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 23.1 12.4 64.5 1078
Level 1 or 2 NICU 20.0 14.4 65.6 1011
Level 3 NICU 14.0 11.8 74.2 551
Census region
Pacific 22.0 8.9 69.1 350
Mountain 22.6 16.3 61.1 221
West North Central 27.1 14.4 58.4 361
East North Central 13.1 13.3 73.6 444
West South Central 28.9 12.1 59.0 322
East South Central 23.1 16.2 60.7 173
New England 3.0 9.1 87.9 132
Middle Atlantic 9.1 12.4 78.4 241
South Atlantic 21.7 14.6 63.6 396

Table 7.4a: Supports offered to breastfeeding staff members
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
Designated room
to express milk
On-site child care Electric breast
pump provided
Permission
to use breaks
to express milk
Breastfeeding
support group
Lactation
consultant
available
Paid
maternity
leave
N
All 72.4 13.0 78.3 94.7 19.4 69.9 32.1 2664
Type of facility
Birth center 51.7 10.2 33.9 77.1 28.0 64.4 20.3 118
Government hospital 62.4 6.9 68.1 93.7 14.1 58.8 26.5 524
Non-profit hospital 77.8 16.6 83.8 96.3 21.8 75.5 35.2 1671
Private hospital 67.8 5.5 81.5 93.9 12.2 60.8 26.1 329
Military hospital 76.2 14.3 90.5 100.0 23.8 71.4 85.7 21
Teaching hospital
Yes 87.0 24.9 89.3 97.2 24.9 87.0 28.2 177
No 72.3 12.2 79.7 95.4 18.6 68.8 33.0 2368
Size of facility
0-249 53.0 5.4 50.6 89.8 13.2 49.2 28.9 591
250-499 68.2 4.4 78.1 95.0 14.5 57.9 30.0 456
500-999 76.4 10.8 87.2 95.7 21.3 72.7 31.0 554
1000-1999 81.4 19.1 90.0 97.5 22.9 84.8 34.1 528
2000-4999 85.5 24.7 89.8 96.5 24.9 84.8 35.9 462
5000 or more 84.1 27.0 90.5 96.8 23.8 88.9 47.6 63
Unknown 30.0 20.0 10.0 70.0 40.0 70.0 0.0 10
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 60.5 5.2 63.5 92.0 14.0 55.2 30.6 1086
Level 1 or 2 NICU 77.7 14.8 87.4 96.1 22.9 75.4 32.3 1022
Level 3 NICU 85.8 25.0 90.5 97.5 23.6 88.3 34.9 556
Census region
Pacific 72.5 10.8 76.8 91.8 19.8 66.6 46.2 353
Mountain 65.9 14.3 74.4 93.3 14.8 68.2 30.5 223
West North Central 69.1 10.2 67.4 97.5 16.3 62.7 32.3 362
East North Central 80.7 15.3 87.8 95.6 21.7 79.4 36.1 451
West South Central 63.7 6.5 68.3 92.6 11.7 54.8 20.3 325
East South Central 61.7 12.0 76.0 93.7 14.9 62.3 26.9 175
New England 85.8 17.9 90.3 97.8 40.3 83.6 26.9 134
Middle Atlantic 80.2 18.2 86.4 97.9 26.9 81.8 38.8 242
South Atlantic 71.9 15.0 81.2 93.7 18.5 73.2 25.6 399

Table 7.5a: Facility's receipt of free formula
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
Does the facility receive infant formula free of charge
Yes No Not sure N
All 87.2 10.6 2.3 2648
Type of facility
Birth center 19.5 78.0 2.5 118
Government hospital 89.0 6.8 4.2 518
Non-profit hospital 90.0 8.4 1.6 1663
Private hospital 96.3 2.1 1.5 327
Military hospital 52.4 33.3 14.3 21
Teaching hospital
Yes 86.4 10.7 2.8 177
No 90.6 7.2 2.2 2352
Size of facility
0-249 76.5 19.3 4.3 586
250-499 92.7 5.1 2.2 455
500-999 92.9 5.1 2.0 550
1000-1999 90.3 8.6 1.1 525
2000-4999 85.8 12.4 1.7 459
5000 or more 88.9 11.1 0.0 63
Unknown 30.0 70.0 0.0 10
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 83.2 13.6 3.2 1078
Level 1 or 2 NICU 91.0 7.1 1.9 1016
Level 3 NICU 87.7 11.0 1.3 554
Census region
Pacific 69.8 27.4 2.8 351
Mountain 86.9 10.0 3.2 221
West North Central 92.5 3.6 3.9 361
East North Central 91.5 6.9 1.6 448
West South Central 87.2 9.7 3.1 321
East South Central 92.5 6.3 1.1 174
New England 79.1 20.1 0.7 134
Middle Atlantic 92.6 5.4 2.1 242
South Atlantic 89.9 9.1 1.0 396

Table 7.6a: Inclusion of breastfeeding in prenatal patient education
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
Does the facility include breastfeeding as component of prenatal education
No/not sure Yes N
All 7.2 92.8 2616
Type of facility
Birth center 12.1 87.9 116
Government hospital 15.4 84.6 514
Non-profit hospital 4.0 96.0 1643
Private hospital 8.7 91.3 321
Military hospital 4.8 95.2 21
Teaching hospital
Yes 2.3 97.7 172
No 7.3 92.7 2327
Size of facility
0-249 16.5 83.5 582
250-499 9.4 90.6 446
500-999 4.6 95.4 541
1000-1999 2.5 97.5 522
2000-4999 2.6 97.4 455
5000 or more 0.0 100.0 61
Unknown 0.0 100.0 9
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 12.7 87.3 1065
Level 1 or 2 NICU 3.9 96.1 1003
Level 3 NICU 2.6 97.4 548
Census region
Pacific 9.8 90.2 347
Mountain 8.3 91.7 218
West North Central 6.2 93.8 356
East North Central 2.0 98.0 443
West South Central 18.1 81.9 315
East South Central 8.7 91.3 173
New England 3.0 97.0 133
Middle Atlantic 2.5 97.5 236
South Atlantic 5.8 94.2 395

Table 7.7a: Existence of a designated lactation coordinator
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
Does the facility have a designated lactation coordinator
Yes No N
All 72.3 27.7 2652
Type of facility
Birth center 47.5 52.5 118
Government hospital 64.6 35.4 522
Non-profit hospital 77.7 22.3 1664
Private hospital 65.4 34.6 327
Military hospital 80.0 20.0 20
Teaching hospital
Yes 92.7 7.3 177
No 72.0 28.0 2356
Size of facility
0-249 50.5 49.5 588
250-499 58.2 41.8 455
500-999 73.1 26.9 551
1000-1999 88.0 12.0 523
2000-4999 92.6 7.4 462
5000 or more 92.1 7.9 63
Unknown 60.0 40.0 10
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 56.3 43.7 1081
Level 1 or 2 NICU 78.1 21.9 1016
Level 3 NICU 92.6 7.4 555
Census region
Pacific 71.3 28.7 349
Mountain 73.9 26.1 222
West North Central 64.6 35.4 362
East North Central 83.5 16.5 448
West South Central 57.9 42.1 323
East South Central 63.4 36.6 175
New England 85.8 14.2 134
Middle Atlantic 81.3 18.7 241
South Atlantic 72.1 27.9 398