CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2009

Table 4.1a: Separation of mother & infant during postpartum transition
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
How many minutes are mothers & infants separated
following vaginal birth in transition to recovery room
No separation <30 minutes 31-60 minutes 61-90 minutes >90 minutes N
All 57.6 7.6 14.8 7.0 12.9 2621
Type of facility
Birth center 95.8 3.4 0.8 0.0 0.0 118
Government hospital 49.3 12.5 17.8 5.7 14.7 511
Non-profit hospital 60.9 6.5 14.6 6.6 11.3 1648
Private hospital 38.2 6.5 17.4 14.3 23.6 322
Military hospital 85.7 9.5 0.0 0.0 4.8 21
Teaching hospital
Yes 50.0 1.2 18.0 6.4 24.4 172
No 56.3 8.2 15.3 7.4 12.7 2330
Size of facility
0-249 64.6 17.6 10.9 2.4 4.5 579
250-499 58.6 8.9 18.3 5.6 8.5 447
500-999 57.8 5.5 14.4 8.2 14.1 547
1000-1999 52.3 2.7 18.7 9.2 17.2 524
2000-4999 54.1 2.0 13.5 9.8 20.6 451
5000 or more 52.4 3.2 9.5 11.1 23.8 63
Unknown 80.0 10.0 0.0 10.0 0.0 10
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 61.5 13.0 14.2 3.9 7.4 1069
Level 1 or 2 NICU 57.1 4.7 15.4 8.5 14.4 1009
Level 3 NICU 51.2 2.2 15.1 10.3 21.2 543
Census region
Pacific 80.7 4.8 6.5 3.1 4.8 352
Mountain 64.8 11.9 13.7 4.6 5.0 219
West North Central 62.3 15.8 17.7 2.3 2.0 355
East North Central 68.4 8.1 12.8 4.3 6.5 446
West South Central 39.9 4.1 15.1 14.2 26.7 318
East South Central 26.9 6.4 24.6 14.0 28.1 171
New England 75.4 6.0 15.7 1.5 1.5 134
Middle Atlantic 37.6 5.1 24.1 13.9 19.4 237
South Atlantic 50.4 4.9 12.3 8.2 24.2 389

Table 4.2a: Separation of mother & infant at night
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
How many hours are breastfeeding mother-infant pairs separated at night
No separation 1-2 hours 3-5 hours 5-7 hours 8 or more hours N
All 70.5 11.0 8.4 8.2 2.0 2607
Type of facility
Birth center 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 116
Government hospital 70.6 11.4 8.0 7.8 2.2 510
Non-profit hospital 69.8 10.4 8.6 9.1 2.0 1641
Private hospital 61.9 17.0 11.3 7.5 2.2 318
Military hospital 85.7 14.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 21
Teaching hospital
Yes 73.4 9.2 8.1 7.5 1.7 173
No 68.8 11.7 8.8 8.7 2.1 2317
Size of facility
0-249 77.2 7.8 7.8 6.1 1.0 575
250-499 65.3 13.3 8.4 10.9 2.0 450
500-999 67.0 14.6 7.6 8.9 1.9 540
1000-1999 68.1 11.4 9.1 9.1 2.3 517
2000-4999 73.5 8.4 9.1 6.6 2.4 453
5000 or more 69.4 8.1 9.7 8.1 4.8 62
Unknown 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 10
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 72.9 9.6 8.3 7.8 1.3 1058
Level 1 or 2 NICU 68.1 12.9 7.9 9.5 1.7 1003
Level 3 NICU 70.3 10.1 9.3 6.6 3.7 546
Census region
Pacific 89.9 6.0 1.1 1.7 1.1 348
Mountain 84.4 9.2 2.3 3.7 0.5 218
West North Central 65.9 9.6 11.0 12.4 1.1 355
East North Central 69.6 9.4 10.7 8.4 1.8 438
West South Central 70.7 12.9 6.6 6.9 2.8 317
East South Central 50.0 18.2 14.7 12.9 4.1 170
New England 75.8 8.3 6.8 7.6 1.5 132
Middle Atlantic 54.6 12.6 13.9 15.1 3.8 238
South Atlantic 67.3 14.6 9.0 7.4 1.8 391

Table 4.3a: Rooming in at least 23 hours a day
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
What percent of healthy full-term infants room
with their mothers at least 23 hours a day
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more N
All 40.5 17.6 8.6 33.4 2626
Type of facility
Birth center 0.8 0.0 0.0 99.2 118
Government hospital 40.7 15.7 8.8 34.8 511
Non-profit hospital 42.3 19.4 9.6 28.8 1652
Private hospital 47.7 18.9 6.5 26.9 323
Military hospital 9.5 0.0 4.8 85.7 21
Teaching hospital
Yes 43.1 15.5 10.3 31.0 174
No 42.3 18.6 8.9 30.2 2333
Size of facility
0-249 33.6 13.0 6.9 46.5 583
250-499 44.4 19.6 8.7 27.3 450
500-999 44.4 19.6 6.1 29.9 545
1000-1999 45.0 17.7 10.1 27.2 525
2000-4999 37.5 18.8 11.1 32.6 451
5000 or more 32.3 21.0 16.1 30.6 62
Unknown 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 10
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 36.8 16.1 7.3 39.8 1070
Level 1 or 2 NICU 43.0 18.8 9.4 28.9 1012
Level 3 NICU 43.0 18.4 9.6 29.0 544
Census region
Pacific 15.1 6.0 9.1 69.8 351
Mountain 24.2 11.4 11.4 53.0 219
West North Central 46.0 24.0 9.5 20.6 359
East North Central 43.0 23.6 12.5 20.9 440
West South Central 43.1 11.9 6.3 38.8 320
East South Central 64.0 19.2 4.7 12.2 172
New England 35.6 26.5 8.3 29.5 132
Middle Atlantic 57.1 22.5 5.4 15.0 240
South Atlantic 43.5 16.8 6.9 32.8 393

Table 4.4a: Reasons for removing healthy full-term breastfed infants from mother's room
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
Pediatric
rounds
Change
of shift
Visiting
hours
Hearing
test
Heel
stick
Infant
photos
Infant'
bath
Mother
bathing
Mother out
of room
N
All 60.2 17.9 2.7 86.2 88.8 54.3 67.9 64.0 85.9 2664
Type of facility
Birth center 0.0 0.0 0.0 80.0 80.0 33.3 60.0 40.0 60.0 118
Government hospital 64.7 21.7 3.4 90.0 89.3 62.0 78.0 70.9 89.8 524
Non-profit hospital 56.4 15.1 2.3 86.4 88.2 52.8 64.3 62.4 84.8 1671
Private hospital 75.3 28.4 4.3 79.6 91.2 53.4 74.4 64.9 88.7 329
Military hospital 50.0 5.3 0.0 85.0 90.0 18.8 33.3 30.0 50.0 21
Teaching hospital
Yes 58.8 12.4 1.8 80.0 80.7 27.0 65.5 58.9 88.7 177
No 60.5 18.4 2.8 86.7 89.5 56.5 68.2 64.5 85.8 2368
Size of facility
0-249 49.2 13.1 4.6 93.6 92.6 66.8 74.2 77.3 89.8 591
250-499 69.3 17.4 3.4 96.6 96.6 81.3 80.3 70.5 90.1 456
500-999 64.5 25.2 2.3 91.5 91.1 72.3 66.5 63.2 85.8 554
1000-1999 60.0 20.9 1.9 80.1 86.8 39.0 61.8 59.9 84.9 528
2000-4999 57.5 12.8 2.1 72.6 79.4 17.7 58.8 54.7 81.3 462
5000 or more 56.5 4.8 1.6 70.5 76.2 26.2 69.4 43.5 75.8 63
Unknown 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 10
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 57.6 17.0 4.1 93.5 93.9 71.7 73.7 70.7 87.7 1086
Level 1 or 2 NICU 61.2 20.3 2.2 86.8 88.9 55.0 65.4 61.8 86.1 1022
Level 3 NICU 62.6 15.2 1.6 73.3 80.6 25.6 63.3 57.4 82.7 556
Census region
Pacific 25.9 6.0 1.6 70.2 73.7 37.3 45.9 47.0 67.9 353
Mountain 38.7 8.0 3.1 83.6 87.1 43.2 69.6 64.2 83.3 223
West North Central 58.8 12.1 2.8 92.7 92.2 55.1 70.5 78.5 92.4 362
East North Central 61.8 10.7 1.7 92.3 91.1 61.3 65.7 66.3 88.9 451
West South Central 78.5 32.5 1.3 79.5 90.6 57.6 80.3 64.0 88.0 325
East South Central 86.6 45.0 4.0 88.4 92.7 68.1 88.5 72.8 95.1 175
New England 38.7 3.3 0.0 93.7 88.0 37.7 41.9 41.0 75.4 134
Middle Atlantic 71.0 23.5 5.3 93.5 91.8 59.3 70.4 72.2 91.2 242
South Atlantic 70.4 24.3 4.3 81.6 90.2 55.9 72.7 58.7 84.9 399

Table 4.5a: Nighttime feedings for non-rooming-in infants
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
How many breastfeeding infants who do not room-in
are brought to the mother for breastfeeding at night
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 1.1 4.0 14.8 79.7 0.4 2271
Type of facility
Birth center 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 5
Government hospital 1.2 4.0 11.4 81.8 1.6 428
Non-profit hospital 0.9 3.9 15.6 79.4 0.1 1522
Private hospital 1.7 4.4 16.6 76.9 0.3 295
Military hospital 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 20
Teaching hospital
Yes 2.9 10.0 18.2 68.2 0.6 170
No 0.9 3.5 14.6 80.6 0.4 2095
Size of facility
0-249 0.5 1.0 7.0 91.0 0.5 388
250-499 0.7 1.2 11.7 86.4 0.0 403
500-999 1.0 3.2 14.0 81.3 0.4 493
1000-1999 0.6 5.9 17.4 75.7 0.4 493
2000-4999 2.3 6.7 21.2 69.1 0.7 430
5000 or more 1.6 11.1 25.4 60.3 1.6 63
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 0.9 1.2 10.8 86.7 0.4 822
Level 1 or 2 NICU 0.6 4.1 15.2 79.9 0.1 927
Level 3 NICU 2.1 8.0 20.3 68.4 1.1 522
Census region
Pacific 1.6 3.5 10.2 83.9 0.8 255
Mountain 0.6 1.8 11.6 86.0 0.0 164
West North Central 0.0 2.1 10.3 87.0 0.6 331
East North Central 0.2 3.4 15.9 80.5 0.0 415
West South Central 1.2 6.6 17.4 73.9 0.8 241
East South Central 0.0 4.8 16.9 77.7 0.6 166
New England 0.8 2.4 15.1 81.7 0.0 126
Middle Atlantic 1.7 5.6 21.1 71.6 0.0 232
South Atlantic 2.9 5.0 15.5 75.7 0.9 341