CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2009

Table 3.1b: Documentation of infant feeding decisions
by state
How often infant feeding decisions are documented in medical records
Rarely Sometimes Often Almost always Not sure N
All 0.2 0.4 1.5 97.8 0.1 2659
State
AK 0.0 0.0 5.3 94.7 0.0 19
AL 0.0 0.0 2.1 97.9 0.0 48
AR 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 38
AZ 0.0 2.8 5.6 91.7 0.0 36
CA 0.0 1.0 3.5 95.0 0.5 202
CO 0.0 0.0 4.1 95.9 0.0 49
CT 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 24
DC 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 6
DE 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 5
FL 0.0 1.0 1.0 98.0 0.0 99
GA 0.0 0.0 1.5 98.5 0.0 65
HI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 9
IA 0.0 0.0 2.9 97.1 0.0 69
ID 0.0 0.0 3.3 96.7 0.0 30
IL 0.0 0.0 1.0 99.0 0.0 103
IN 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 85
KS 1.5 0.0 1.5 96.9 0.0 65
KY 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 42
LA 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 45
MA 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 46
MD 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 26
ME 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 26
MI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 77
MN 1.1 0.0 1.1 97.7 0.0 87
MO 0.0 3.3 1.6 95.1 0.0 61
MS 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 28
MT 3.8 0.0 0.0 96.2 0.0 26
NC 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 69
ND 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 12
NE 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 49
NH 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 21
NJ 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 43
NM 0.0 5.0 5.0 90.0 0.0 20
NV 0.0 0.0 6.7 93.3 0.0 15
NY 0.0 0.0 0.9 98.2 0.9 113
OH 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 97
OK 0.0 0.0 2.0 98.0 0.0 51
OR 0.0 0.0 3.8 96.2 0.0 53
PA 1.2 0.0 2.3 96.5 0.0 86
PR 0.0 0.0 7.7 92.3 0.0 13
RI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 7
SC 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 36
SD 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 21
TN 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 57
TX 0.5 1.1 2.6 95.3 0.5 190
UT 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 27
VA 0.0 0.0 2.0 98.0 0.0 49
VT 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 10
WA 0.0 1.5 1.5 97.0 0.0 67
WI 0.0 0.0 1.1 98.9 0.0 90
WV 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 28
WY 0.0 0.0 10.5 89.5 0.0 19

Table 3.2b: Provision of advice & instructions for breastfeeding patients
by state
How many breastfeeding patients are provided
advice & instructions about breastfeeding
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 0.2 1.1 9.5 89.1 0.1 2653
State
AK 0.0 0.0 15.8 84.2 0.0 19
AL 0.0 0.0 10.4 89.6 0.0 48
AR 0.0 2.6 15.8 81.6 0.0 38
AZ 0.0 0.0 18.4 81.6 0.0 38
CA 0.0 2.0 10.4 87.6 0.0 202
CO 0.0 2.1 0.0 97.9 0.0 48
CT 0.0 0.0 12.5 87.5 0.0 24
DC 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 6
DE 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 5
FL 0.0 1.0 7.1 91.9 0.0 99
GA 0.0 0.0 12.3 87.7 0.0 65
HI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 9
IA 0.0 1.4 7.2 91.3 0.0 69
ID 0.0 0.0 23.3 76.7 0.0 30
IL 0.0 1.0 6.9 92.2 0.0 102
IN 0.0 1.2 11.8 85.9 1.2 85
KS 0.0 1.5 12.3 86.2 0.0 65
KY 0.0 2.4 7.1 90.5 0.0 42
LA 0.0 0.0 13.3 86.7 0.0 45
MA 0.0 0.0 2.2 97.8 0.0 46
MD 0.0 0.0 7.7 92.3 0.0 26
ME 0.0 0.0 3.8 96.2 0.0 26
MI 0.0 1.3 13.0 85.7 0.0 77
MN 0.0 1.2 8.2 90.6 0.0 85
MO 0.0 0.0 8.5 91.5 0.0 59
MS 0.0 0.0 17.9 82.1 0.0 28
MT 0.0 3.8 11.5 84.6 0.0 26
NC 0.0 0.0 11.6 87.0 1.4 69
ND 0.0 0.0 8.3 91.7 0.0 12
NE 0.0 2.1 22.9 75.0 0.0 48
NH 0.0 0.0 4.8 95.2 0.0 21
NJ 2.3 0.0 7.0 90.7 0.0 43
NM 0.0 5.0 20.0 75.0 0.0 20
NV 0.0 6.7 26.7 66.7 0.0 15
NY 0.9 0.0 8.8 90.3 0.0 113
OH 0.0 0.0 4.2 95.8 0.0 96
OK 0.0 3.9 21.6 74.5 0.0 51
OR 0.0 0.0 3.8 96.2 0.0 52
PA 0.0 0.0 4.6 95.4 0.0 87
PR 0.0 7.1 7.1 85.7 0.0 14
RI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 7
SC 2.8 0.0 11.1 86.1 0.0 36
SD 0.0 4.8 9.5 85.7 0.0 21
TN 0.0 0.0 8.8 91.2 0.0 57
TX 0.5 3.1 7.3 89.0 0.0 191
UT 0.0 0.0 18.5 81.5 0.0 27
VA 0.0 2.0 2.0 95.9 0.0 49
VT 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 10
WA 0.0 0.0 9.0 91.0 0.0 67
WI 0.0 0.0 3.4 96.6 0.0 89
WV 0.0 0.0 18.5 81.5 0.0 27
WY 0.0 0.0 21.1 78.9 0.0 19

Table 3.3b: Education on infant cues to feed
by state
How many patients are taught to recognize & respond
to infant cues rather than feeding on a set schedule
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 0.2 2.2 15.5 81.8 0.3 2650
State
AK 0.0 5.3 15.8 78.9 0.0 19
AL 0.0 4.3 12.8 80.9 2.1 47
AR 0.0 7.9 13.2 78.9 0.0 38
AZ 0.0 0.0 13.2 86.8 0.0 38
CA 0.5 3.0 14.4 82.2 0.0 202
CO 0.0 6.4 6.4 87.2 0.0 47
CT 0.0 4.2 4.2 91.7 0.0 24
DC 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 6
DE 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 5
FL 0.0 1.0 15.2 83.8 0.0 99
GA 0.0 3.1 15.4 80.0 1.5 65
HI 0.0 0.0 33.3 66.7 0.0 9
IA 0.0 1.4 23.2 75.4 0.0 69
ID 0.0 3.3 16.7 80.0 0.0 30
IL 0.0 1.0 11.8 87.3 0.0 102
IN 0.0 2.4 21.2 76.5 0.0 85
KS 0.0 3.1 12.3 84.6 0.0 65
KY 0.0 7.1 14.3 76.2 2.4 42
LA 0.0 0.0 15.6 84.4 0.0 45
MA 0.0 0.0 4.3 95.7 0.0 46
MD 0.0 0.0 7.7 92.3 0.0 26
ME 0.0 0.0 7.7 92.3 0.0 26
MI 0.0 2.6 16.9 79.2 1.3 77
MN 0.0 0.0 19.8 79.1 1.2 86
MO 0.0 0.0 25.4 74.6 0.0 59
MS 0.0 3.6 21.4 71.4 3.6 28
MT 0.0 3.8 15.4 80.8 0.0 26
NC 0.0 2.9 17.6 77.9 1.5 68
ND 0.0 0.0 25.0 75.0 0.0 12
NE 0.0 6.3 27.1 66.7 0.0 48
NH 0.0 0.0 4.8 95.2 0.0 21
NJ 2.3 0.0 11.6 86.0 0.0 43
NM 5.0 0.0 15.0 80.0 0.0 20
NV 0.0 13.3 20.0 66.7 0.0 15
NY 0.0 0.9 12.4 86.7 0.0 113
OH 0.0 0.0 6.3 93.8 0.0 96
OK 2.0 3.9 25.5 68.6 0.0 51
OR 0.0 3.8 15.4 80.8 0.0 52
PA 0.0 1.1 16.1 82.8 0.0 87
PR 0.0 0.0 7.1 92.9 0.0 14
RI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 7
SC 0.0 0.0 13.9 86.1 0.0 36
SD 0.0 4.8 14.3 81.0 0.0 21
TN 0.0 5.3 14.0 80.7 0.0 57
TX 0.5 3.2 16.8 78.4 1.1 190
UT 0.0 3.7 44.4 51.9 0.0 27
VA 0.0 2.0 12.2 85.7 0.0 49
VT 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 10
WA 0.0 0.0 16.4 83.6 0.0 67
WI 0.0 0.0 12.4 87.6 0.0 89
WV 0.0 0.0 29.6 70.4 0.0 27
WY 0.0 0.0 31.6 68.4 0.0 19

Table 3.4b: Education on limitation to time suckling
by state
How often are breastfeeding patients instructed to limit
suckling at the breast to a specific length of time
Rarely Sometimes Often Almost always Not sure N
All 42.5 25.1 15.8 14.9 1.7 2644
State
AK 42.1 26.3 21.1 10.5 0.0 19
AL 44.7 21.3 17.0 17.0 0.0 47
AR 18.4 21.1 21.1 36.8 2.6 38
AZ 39.5 26.3 13.2 21.1 0.0 38
CA 51.0 21.3 14.4 10.9 2.5 202
CO 36.2 38.3 12.8 10.6 2.1 47
CT 54.2 20.8 16.7 4.2 4.2 24
DC 50.0 16.7 16.7 16.7 0.0 6
DE 60.0 20.0 20.0 0.0 0.0 5
FL 44.4 25.3 22.2 6.1 2.0 99
GA 31.3 29.7 26.6 10.9 1.6 64
HI 44.4 0.0 44.4 11.1 0.0 9
IA 29.0 36.2 17.4 15.9 1.4 69
ID 37.9 17.2 24.1 17.2 3.4 29
IL 42.2 22.5 16.7 16.7 2.0 102
IN 46.4 31.0 6.0 15.5 1.2 84
KS 18.8 39.1 17.2 23.4 1.6 64
KY 28.6 26.2 14.3 28.6 2.4 42
LA 42.2 22.2 11.1 24.4 0.0 45
MA 54.3 26.1 10.9 8.7 0.0 46
MD 61.5 11.5 11.5 11.5 3.8 26
ME 76.9 19.2 0.0 3.8 0.0 26
MI 48.1 24.7 15.6 10.4 1.3 77
MN 37.6 34.1 15.3 7.1 5.9 85
MO 37.3 30.5 13.6 18.6 0.0 59
MS 33.3 11.1 22.2 29.6 3.7 27
MT 34.6 23.1 19.2 15.4 7.7 26
NC 37.7 30.4 14.5 15.9 1.4 69
ND 50.0 16.7 16.7 16.7 0.0 12
NE 37.5 31.3 16.7 10.4 4.2 48
NH 70.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 20
NJ 44.2 23.3 18.6 11.6 2.3 43
NM 40.0 25.0 15.0 20.0 0.0 20
NV 0.0 20.0 33.3 33.3 13.3 15
NY 53.1 19.5 16.8 10.6 0.0 113
OH 51.0 28.1 9.4 10.4 1.0 96
OK 13.7 23.5 35.3 27.5 0.0 51
OR 65.4 19.2 9.6 3.8 1.9 52
PA 41.4 31.0 17.2 9.2 1.1 87
PR 28.6 21.4 0.0 50.0 0.0 14
RI 71.4 14.3 14.3 0.0 0.0 7
SC 44.4 16.7 11.1 25.0 2.8 36
SD 38.1 23.8 4.8 33.3 0.0 21
TN 26.3 21.1 19.3 31.6 1.8 57
TX 33.7 27.9 19.5 18.4 0.5 190
UT 29.6 22.2 22.2 18.5 7.4 27
VA 36.7 22.4 14.3 22.4 4.1 49
VT 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 10
WA 68.7 19.4 6.0 6.0 0.0 67
WI 58.4 27.0 9.0 5.6 0.0 89
WV 40.7 11.1 18.5 25.9 3.7 27
WY 31.6 21.1 36.8 10.5 0.0 19

Table 3.5b: Directly observed breastfeeding assessments
by state
How many breastfeeding patients receive a
directly observed breastfeeding assessment
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 0.3 2.6 14.4 82.7 0.1 2653
State
AK 0.0 0.0 5.3 94.7 0.0 19
AL 0.0 2.1 16.7 81.3 0.0 48
AR 0.0 5.3 18.4 76.3 0.0 38
AZ 0.0 2.6 13.2 84.2 0.0 38
CA 0.0 2.0 10.0 88.1 0.0 201
CO 0.0 2.1 4.2 93.8 0.0 48
CT 0.0 4.2 20.8 75.0 0.0 24
DC 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 6
DE 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 5
FL 0.0 1.0 12.2 86.7 0.0 98
GA 0.0 6.2 10.8 83.1 0.0 65
HI 0.0 0.0 22.2 77.8 0.0 9
IA 0.0 4.3 10.1 85.5 0.0 69
ID 3.3 0.0 16.7 80.0 0.0 30
IL 0.0 2.9 21.4 75.7 0.0 103
IN 0.0 1.2 15.3 83.5 0.0 85
KS 0.0 0.0 20.0 80.0 0.0 65
KY 2.4 2.4 16.7 78.6 0.0 42
LA 0.0 4.4 22.2 71.1 2.2 45
MA 0.0 0.0 2.2 97.8 0.0 46
MD 0.0 3.8 19.2 76.9 0.0 26
ME 0.0 0.0 3.8 96.2 0.0 26
MI 0.0 9.2 17.1 73.7 0.0 76
MN 0.0 1.1 10.3 88.5 0.0 87
MO 0.0 1.6 13.1 85.2 0.0 61
MS 0.0 3.6 35.7 57.1 3.6 28
MT 4.0 0.0 28.0 68.0 0.0 25
NC 0.0 4.3 13.0 82.6 0.0 69
ND 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 12
NE 0.0 6.4 29.8 63.8 0.0 47
NH 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 21
NJ 0.0 2.3 18.6 79.1 0.0 43
NM 0.0 0.0 10.0 90.0 0.0 20
NV 6.7 0.0 20.0 73.3 0.0 15
NY 0.0 3.5 17.7 78.8 0.0 113
OH 0.0 0.0 6.3 93.8 0.0 96
OK 2.0 3.9 21.6 72.5 0.0 51
OR 0.0 0.0 5.8 94.2 0.0 52
PA 0.0 1.1 12.6 86.2 0.0 87
PR 0.0 14.3 7.1 78.6 0.0 14
RI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 7
SC 2.8 2.8 8.3 86.1 0.0 36
SD 0.0 0.0 23.8 76.2 0.0 21
TN 0.0 0.0 14.0 86.0 0.0 57
TX 0.5 5.2 20.9 73.3 0.0 191
UT 0.0 3.7 14.8 81.5 0.0 27
VA 0.0 4.1 10.2 85.7 0.0 49
VT 0.0 0.0 20.0 80.0 0.0 10
WA 0.0 0.0 11.9 88.1 0.0 67
WI 0.0 0.0 10.1 89.9 0.0 89
WV 0.0 3.6 21.4 75.0 0.0 28
WY 0.0 5.6 16.7 77.8 0.0 18

Table 3.6b: Use of a standardized breastfeeding assessment tool
by state
Is breastfeeding assessed using a standardized or adapted assessment tool
Yes No N
All 60.2 39.8 2633
State
AK 31.6 68.4 19
AL 42.6 57.4 47
AR 36.8 63.2 38
AZ 71.1 28.9 38
CA 83.4 16.6 199
CO 73.5 26.5 49
CT 62.5 37.5 24
DC 66.7 33.3 6
DE 80.0 20.0 5
FL 53.6 46.4 97
GA 56.9 43.1 65
HI 66.7 33.3 9
IA 55.1 44.9 69
ID 66.7 33.3 30
IL 60.8 39.2 102
IN 61.2 38.8 85
KS 38.5 61.5 65
KY 34.1 65.9 41
LA 55.6 44.4 45
MA 76.1 23.9 46
MD 84.6 15.4 26
ME 56.0 44.0 25
MI 56.6 43.4 76
MN 74.4 25.6 86
MO 65.6 34.4 61
MS 37.0 63.0 27
MT 32.0 68.0 25
NC 58.8 41.2 68
ND 58.3 41.7 12
NE 40.4 59.6 47
NH 61.9 38.1 21
NJ 76.7 23.3 43
NM 60.0 40.0 20
NV 57.1 42.9 14
NY 56.8 43.2 111
OH 67.0 33.0 94
OK 41.2 58.8 51
OR 70.6 29.4 51
PA 65.1 34.9 86
PR 21.4 78.6 14
RI 100.0 0.0 7
SC 36.1 63.9 36
SD 52.4 47.6 21
TN 58.9 41.1 56
TX 49.5 50.5 190
UT 88.9 11.1 27
VA 57.4 42.6 47
VT 70.0 30.0 10
WA 73.1 26.9 67
WI 75.3 24.7 89
WV 28.6 71.4 28
WY 72.2 27.8 18

Table 3.7b: Provision of pacifiers
by state
How many breastfed infants are
given pacifiers by facility staff
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 30.0 28.5 29.4 11.0 1.1 2638
State
AK 47.4 26.3 21.1 5.3 0.0 19
AL 25.0 16.7 41.7 16.7 0.0 48
AR 16.2 18.9 40.5 24.3 0.0 37
AZ 16.2 27.0 32.4 18.9 5.4 37
CA 46.5 28.7 17.3 5.9 1.5 202
CO 22.4 38.8 32.7 6.1 0.0 49
CT 45.5 13.6 31.8 4.5 4.5 22
DC 50.0 33.3 16.7 0.0 0.0 6
DE 60.0 0.0 20.0 20.0 0.0 5
FL 33.7 28.6 28.6 9.2 0.0 98
GA 12.5 21.9 51.6 14.1 0.0 64
HI 55.6 33.3 11.1 0.0 0.0 9
IA 14.5 29.0 39.1 15.9 1.4 69
ID 36.7 26.7 23.3 10.0 3.3 30
IL 21.6 25.5 39.2 13.7 0.0 102
IN 21.2 37.6 28.2 11.8 1.2 85
KS 18.5 44.6 24.6 12.3 0.0 65
KY 16.7 23.8 38.1 21.4 0.0 42
LA 22.7 29.5 25.0 22.7 0.0 44
MA 43.5 28.3 23.9 4.3 0.0 46
MD 38.5 26.9 15.4 15.4 3.8 26
ME 61.5 19.2 15.4 3.8 0.0 26
MI 21.3 29.3 30.7 17.3 1.3 75
MN 28.2 37.6 28.2 4.7 1.2 85
MO 13.6 27.1 37.3 15.3 6.8 59
MS 7.4 25.9 37.0 25.9 3.7 27
MT 44.0 24.0 24.0 8.0 0.0 25
NC 31.9 20.3 34.8 13.0 0.0 69
ND 16.7 41.7 25.0 16.7 0.0 12
NE 14.9 40.4 34.0 6.4 4.3 47
NH 66.7 28.6 4.8 0.0 0.0 21
NJ 30.2 27.9 23.3 18.6 0.0 43
NM 55.0 10.0 25.0 10.0 0.0 20
NV 7.1 21.4 50.0 21.4 0.0 14
NY 50.0 24.1 22.3 2.7 0.9 112
OH 28.4 32.6 34.7 4.2 0.0 95
OK 21.6 25.5 25.5 27.5 0.0 51
OR 43.4 39.6 17.0 0.0 0.0 53
PA 19.8 37.2 33.7 8.1 1.2 86
PR 78.6 0.0 7.1 0.0 14.3 14
RI 57.1 42.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 7
SC 19.4 27.8 33.3 13.9 5.6 36
SD 14.3 42.9 38.1 4.8 0.0 21
TN 19.3 19.3 43.9 17.5 0.0 57
TX 32.6 23.7 26.8 15.8 1.1 190
UT 19.2 26.9 46.2 7.7 0.0 26
VA 26.5 32.7 28.6 12.2 0.0 49
VT 50.0 40.0 10.0 0.0 0.0 10
WA 49.3 20.9 25.4 4.5 0.0 67
WI 25.6 38.9 26.7 7.8 1.1 90
WV 42.9 10.7 35.7 10.7 0.0 28
WY 11.1 38.9 38.9 11.1 0.0 18