CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2009

Table 2.1a: Prelacteal feeds among breastfed vaginal births
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
What percent of healthy breastfed infants receive breast milk
as first feeding after vaginal birth
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more N
All 1.9 4.0 20.1 74.0 2635
Type of facility
Birth center 0.0 0.0 3.4 96.6 118
Government hospital 3.7 7.2 22.1 67.0 515
Non-profit hospital 1.1 2.8 19.7 76.4 1655
Private hospital 4.3 6.8 24.0 64.9 325
Military hospital 0.0 0.0 33.3 66.7 21
Teaching hospital
Yes 1.1 8.0 25.3 65.5 174
No 2.1 3.9 20.5 73.5 2342
Size of facility
0-249 2.9 3.4 15.0 78.7 586
250-499 2.7 4.9 14.9 77.5 449
500-999 0.9 4.0 20.3 74.8 548
1000-1999 1.5 3.4 21.8 73.2 523
2000-4999 2.0 4.2 28.2 65.6 457
5000 or more 0.0 6.5 32.3 61.3 62
Unknown 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 10
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 2.9 4.2 15.6 77.3 1077
Level 1 or 2 NICU 1.1 3.3 21.4 74.3 1010
Level 3 NICU 1.6 4.9 26.5 67.0 548
Census region
Pacific 2.6 1.7 14.8 80.9 351
Mountain 0.5 2.3 19.0 78.3 221
West North Central 1.4 1.7 21.2 75.7 358
East North Central 0.7 2.0 20.1 77.2 447
West South Central 4.4 7.5 24.6 63.6 321
East South Central 2.4 9.4 22.9 65.3 170
New England 0.7 0.7 7.5 91.0 134
Middle Atlantic 0.4 5.8 20.4 73.3 240
South Atlantic 3.3 6.1 23.4 67.2 393

Table 2.2a: Prelacteal feeds among breastfed Cesarean births
by hospital type, size, NICU level, and region*
What percent of healthy breastfed infants receive breast milk
as first feeding after Cesarean birth
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more N
All 4.0 6.5 25.6 63.9 2482
Type of facility
Government hospital 6.9 9.0 25.0 59.1 509
Non-profit hospital 2.9 4.7 25.0 67.3 1635
Private hospital 5.4 12.0 28.8 53.8 316
Military hospital 0.0 0.0 38.1 61.9 21
Teaching hospital
Yes 6.4 9.4 32.7 51.5 171
No 3.9 6.3 25.1 64.8 2310
Size of facility
0-249 4.9 5.1 20.2 69.8 470
250-499 3.2 7.1 20.6 69.0 436
500-999 3.3 7.0 23.4 66.3 543
1000-1999 3.9 6.2 28.9 61.1 519
2000-4999 5.1 6.9 32.1 56.0 452
5000 or more 3.3 8.2 44.3 44.3 61
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 5.1 5.4 21.8 67.7 940
Level 1 or 2 NICU 2.7 6.9 26.3 64.1 999
Level 3 NICU 4.6 7.6 30.8 57.1 543
Census region
Pacific 4.2 3.5 22.7 69.6 313
Mountain 2.5 4.5 28.9 64.2 201
West North Central 1.4 2.9 24.0 71.7 350
East North Central 2.1 4.8 25.9 67.2 436
West South Central 6.2 12.4 28.2 53.3 291
East South Central 6.1 7.3 27.9 58.8 165
New England 1.6 0.8 12.5 85.2 128
Middle Atlantic 6.5 10.0 28.1 55.4 231
South Atlantic 6.3 10.4 27.2 56.1 367
*Note: Facilities not performing Cesareans are not included in these tabulations.

Table 2.3a: Supplementation of breastfed infants
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
What percent of healthy breastfed infants
receive non-breast milk feedings
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more N
All 21.5 48.6 26.1 3.8 2584
Type of facility
Birth center 79.3 14.7 2.6 3.4 116
Government hospital 18.4 45.9 30.5 5.3 512
Non-profit hospital 19.8 51.8 25.1 3.3 1619
Private hospital 14.2 47.2 34.2 4.4 316
Military hospital 20.0 70.0 10.0 0.0 20
Teaching hospital
Yes 11.6 45.9 36.6 5.8 172
No 19.3 50.5 26.5 3.7 2295
Size of facility
0-249 38.1 40.6 16.8 4.5 572
250-499 21.2 48.5 25.7 4.5 443
500-999 17.5 52.1 27.4 3.0 536
1000-1999 16.7 52.7 26.5 4.1 509
2000-4999 11.5 50.3 35.3 2.9 451
5000 or more 7.9 49.2 38.1 4.8 63
Unknown 70.0 30.0 0.0 0.0 10
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 30.6 43.4 22.1 4.0 1056
Level 1 or 2 NICU 16.9 52.1 27.3 3.7 990
Level 3 NICU 12.1 52.2 32.0 3.7 538
Census region
Pacific 28.3 46.5 22.0 3.2 346
Mountain 23.4 50.5 21.5 4.7 214
West North Central 24.4 50.6 21.6 3.4 356
East North Central 21.2 52.5 24.2 2.1 434
West South Central 17.0 44.8 35.0 3.2 317
East South Central 13.1 48.2 32.1 6.5 168
New England 35.9 50.4 12.2 1.5 131
Middle Atlantic 17.5 49.6 28.6 4.3 234
South Atlantic 16.7 45.1 32.0 6.3 384

Table 2.4a: Use of glucose water and/or water among breastfed infants
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
Do healthy breastfed infants receive glucose water and/or water
Yes No N
All 25.3 74.7 2482
Type of facility
Birth center 12.0 88.0 108
Government hospital 33.3 66.7 492
Non-profit hospital 23.5 76.5 1560
Private hospital 28.3 71.7 300
Military hospital 0.0 100.0 21
Teaching hospital
Yes 9.1 90.9 164
No 27.2 72.8 2209
Size of facility
0-249 35.5 64.5 544
250-499 34.7 65.3 429
500-999 28.1 71.9 516
1000-1999 17.0 83.0 487
2000-4999 12.6 87.4 438
5000 or more 5.1 94.9 59
Unknown 11.1 88.9 9
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 32.6 67.4 1016
Level 1 or 2 NICU 24.0 76.0 950
Level 3 NICU 13.6 86.4 516
Census region
Pacific 19.3 80.7 331
Mountain 24.5 75.5 208
West North Central 33.5 66.5 340
East North Central 22.1 77.9 425
West South Central 34.9 65.1 295
East South Central 33.5 66.5 161
New England 15.9 84.1 126
Middle Atlantic 14.9 85.1 228
South Atlantic 25.8 74.2 368