CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2009

Table 1.1b: Skin-to-skin contact among vaginal births
by state
How many patients experience mother-infant skin-to-skin contact
for at least 30 minutes within 1 hour of uncomplicated vaginal birth
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 11.8 21.5 23.2 43.2 0.3 2657
State
AK 0.0 0.0 15.8 84.2 0.0 19
AL 29.2 31.3 20.8 18.8 0.0 48
AR 28.9 28.9 21.1 21.1 0.0 38
AZ 7.9 23.7 18.4 50.0 0.0 38
CA 6.5 10.4 23.4 59.7 0.0 201
CO 6.1 12.2 28.6 53.1 0.0 49
CT 8.3 25.0 16.7 50.0 0.0 24
DC 16.7 0.0 0.0 83.3 0.0 6
DE 0.0 40.0 20.0 40.0 0.0 5
FL 9.1 21.2 24.2 45.5 0.0 99
GA 21.5 32.3 13.8 32.3 0.0 65
HI 0.0 11.1 44.4 44.4 0.0 9
IA 21.7 24.6 24.6 29.0 0.0 69
ID 10.0 26.7 13.3 50.0 0.0 30
IL 14.7 29.4 20.6 34.3 1.0 102
IN 16.5 25.9 18.8 38.8 0.0 85
KS 16.9 12.3 26.2 43.1 1.5 65
KY 26.8 9.8 31.7 31.7 0.0 41
LA 13.3 17.8 15.6 53.3 0.0 45
MA 6.5 2.2 34.8 56.5 0.0 46
MD 15.4 19.2 26.9 38.5 0.0 26
ME 0.0 15.4 15.4 69.2 0.0 26
MI 14.3 28.6 19.5 37.7 0.0 77
MN 1.1 26.4 26.4 46.0 0.0 87
MO 11.5 26.2 26.2 34.4 1.6 61
MS 32.1 32.1 17.9 17.9 0.0 28
MT 7.7 23.1 11.5 57.7 0.0 26
NC 23.2 23.2 20.3 33.3 0.0 69
ND 16.7 16.7 25.0 33.3 8.3 12
NE 22.4 26.5 22.4 28.6 0.0 49
NH 0.0 0.0 47.6 52.4 0.0 21
NJ 14.0 23.3 37.2 25.6 0.0 43
NM 5.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 0.0 20
NV 20.0 33.3 33.3 13.3 0.0 15
NY 7.1 20.4 23.0 48.7 0.9 113
OH 8.2 24.7 36.1 30.9 0.0 97
OK 19.6 35.3 21.6 23.5 0.0 51
OR 3.8 11.3 18.9 66.0 0.0 53
PA 9.4 29.4 31.8 28.2 1.2 85
PR 15.4 7.7 46.2 30.8 0.0 13
RI 0.0 0.0 28.6 71.4 0.0 7
SC 22.2 19.4 11.1 44.4 2.8 36
SD 9.5 33.3 14.3 42.9 0.0 21
TN 17.5 26.3 19.3 36.8 0.0 57
TX 9.9 19.4 21.5 49.2 0.0 191
UT 7.4 14.8 25.9 51.9 0.0 27
VA 4.1 26.5 14.3 53.1 2.0 49
VT 0.0 10.0 10.0 80.0 0.0 10
WA 1.5 9.0 19.4 70.1 0.0 67
WI 7.8 25.6 21.1 45.6 0.0 90
WV 7.4 25.9 33.3 33.3 0.0 27
WY 10.5 31.6 21.1 36.8 0.0 19
Table 1.2b: Skin-to-skin contact among Cesarean births
by state*
How many patients experience mother-infant skin-to-skin contact
for at least 30 minutes within 2 hours of uncomplicated Cesarean birth
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 26.1 21.7 19.5 32.4 0.3 2502
State
AK 18.2 0.0 18.2 63.6 0.0 11
AL 39.6 20.8 14.6 25.0 0.0 48
AR 51.4 10.8 24.3 13.5 0.0 37
AZ 11.8 26.5 20.6 41.2 0.0 34
CA 21.7 16.9 24.9 36.5 0.0 189
CO 8.9 22.2 15.6 53.3 0.0 45
CT 17.4 21.7 17.4 43.5 0.0 23
DC 20.0 0.0 0.0 60.0 20.0 5
DE 50.0 0.0 25.0 25.0 0.0 4
FL 29.8 28.6 14.3 26.2 1.2 84
GA 36.9 23.1 21.5 18.5 0.0 65
HI 37.5 0.0 12.5 50.0 0.0 8
IA 30.4 26.1 14.5 29.0 0.0 69
ID 14.3 25.0 21.4 39.3 0.0 28
IL 32.7 25.7 14.9 25.7 1.0 101
IN 32.1 23.5 17.3 27.2 0.0 81
KS 17.5 33.3 14.3 34.9 0.0 63
KY 38.1 19.0 28.6 14.3 0.0 42
LA 33.3 28.6 14.3 23.8 0.0 42
MA 11.1 11.1 22.2 55.6 0.0 45
MD 33.3 16.7 12.5 37.5 0.0 24
ME 12.0 16.0 16.0 56.0 0.0 25
MI 26.4 20.8 18.1 34.7 0.0 72
MN 14.3 21.4 25.0 36.9 2.4 84
MO 18.6 20.3 18.6 42.4 0.0 59
MS 44.4 18.5 7.4 25.9 3.7 27
MT 12.5 12.5 16.7 58.3 0.0 24
NC 43.5 15.9 15.9 24.6 0.0 69
ND 33.3 25.0 16.7 25.0 0.0 12
NE 23.4 17.0 14.9 44.7 0.0 47
NH 10.5 15.8 31.6 42.1 0.0 19
NJ 27.9 27.9 23.3 20.9 0.0 43
NM 23.5 17.6 29.4 29.4 0.0 17
NV 50.0 14.3 28.6 7.1 0.0 14
NY 26.9 25.9 19.4 27.8 0.0 108
OH 20.2 26.6 18.1 35.1 0.0 94
OK 35.3 19.6 19.6 25.5 0.0 51
OR 8.5 8.5 29.8 53.2 0.0 47
PA 37.0 25.9 14.8 22.2 0.0 81
PR 57.1 7.1 7.1 21.4 7.1 14
RI 0.0 28.6 28.6 42.9 0.0 7
SC 45.2 16.1 19.4 19.4 0.0 31
SD 25.0 30.0 15.0 30.0 0.0 20
TN 22.6 37.7 11.3 28.3 0.0 53
TX 33.5 20.1 18.9 27.4 0.0 164
UT 12.0 24.0 36.0 28.0 0.0 25
VA 19.1 23.4 29.8 27.7 0.0 47
VT 10.0 10.0 50.0 30.0 0.0 10
WA 7.0 12.3 24.6 56.1 0.0 57
WI 14.8 30.7 23.9 30.7 0.0 88
WV 30.8 23.1 19.2 26.9 0.0 26
WY 21.1 15.8 10.5 52.6 0.0 19
*Note: Facilities not performing Cesareans
are not included in these tabulations.
Table 1.3b: Early breastfeeding initiation among vaginal births
by state
What percent of healthy breastfed infants are put to the breast
within 1 hour of uncomplicated vaginal birth
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more N
All 3.4 11.9 33.8 51.0 2622
State
AK 0.0 0.0 21.1 78.9 19
AL 4.5 22.7 40.9 31.8 44
AR 16.2 10.8 45.9 27.0 37
AZ 5.3 13.2 34.2 47.4 38
CA 5.0 9.0 35.7 50.3 199
CO 0.0 6.3 35.4 58.3 48
CT 0.0 8.3 41.7 50.0 24
DC 0.0 0.0 33.3 66.7 6
DE 0.0 20.0 20.0 60.0 5
FL 2.0 13.3 29.6 55.1 98
GA 3.1 25.0 40.6 31.3 64
HI 0.0 11.1 22.2 66.7 9
IA 2.9 19.1 29.4 48.5 68
ID 0.0 10.0 16.7 73.3 30
IL 2.0 13.9 36.6 47.5 101
IN 2.4 7.1 34.5 56.0 84
KS 4.6 9.2 35.4 50.8 65
KY 2.4 14.3 42.9 40.5 42
LA 7.1 28.6 16.7 47.6 42
MA 0.0 8.7 28.3 63.0 46
MD 0.0 4.0 36.0 60.0 25
ME 0.0 0.0 34.6 65.4 26
MI 3.9 13.2 35.5 47.4 76
MN 1.2 7.1 37.6 54.1 85
MO 1.7 10.2 35.6 52.5 59
MS 4.0 28.0 32.0 36.0 25
MT 0.0 11.5 23.1 65.4 26
NC 5.9 17.6 33.8 42.6 68
ND 0.0 8.3 33.3 58.3 12
NE 4.1 8.2 34.7 53.1 49
NH 0.0 0.0 19.0 81.0 21
NJ 4.7 20.9 34.9 39.5 43
NM 5.0 20.0 30.0 45.0 20
NV 7.1 28.6 14.3 50.0 14
NY 2.7 11.6 33.9 51.8 112
OH 4.2 5.3 42.1 48.4 95
OK 2.0 13.7 47.1 37.3 51
OR 0.0 0.0 26.4 73.6 53
PA 0.0 11.6 32.6 55.8 86
PR 23.1 23.1 23.1 30.8 13
RI 0.0 0.0 28.6 71.4 7
SC 8.3 25.0 25.0 41.7 36
SD 4.8 23.8 19.0 52.4 21
TN 1.8 14.0 36.8 47.4 57
TX 8.9 15.3 36.3 39.5 190
UT 0.0 7.4 14.8 77.8 27
VA 2.1 8.5 31.9 57.4 47
VT 0.0 0.0 40.0 60.0 10
WA 1.5 6.0 20.9 71.6 67
WI 0.0 4.5 38.2 57.3 89
WV 3.8 11.5 46.2 38.5 26
WY 0.0 5.9 29.4 64.7 17
Table 1.4b: Early breastfeeding initiation among Cesarean births
by state*
What percent of healthy breastfed infants are put to the breast
within 2 hours of uncomplicated Cesarean birth
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more N
All 13.8 13.7 29.9 42.7 2486
State
AK 9.1 9.1 18.2 63.6 11
AL 23.9 15.2 26.1 34.8 46
AR 21.6 18.9 29.7 29.7 37
AZ 15.2 12.1 36.4 36.4 33
CA 23.9 14.4 26.1 35.6 188
CO 0.0 4.4 35.6 60.0 45
CT 0.0 8.7 47.8 43.5 23
DC 20.0 0.0 40.0 40.0 5
DE 25.0 25.0 0.0 50.0 4
FL 21.4 17.9 28.6 32.1 84
GA 15.9 19.0 33.3 31.7 63
HI 25.0 12.5 25.0 37.5 8
IA 4.4 11.8 30.9 52.9 68
ID 0.0 14.3 28.6 57.1 28
IL 10.0 19.0 29.0 42.0 100
IN 7.5 13.8 32.5 46.3 80
KS 7.9 6.3 28.6 57.1 63
KY 16.7 16.7 28.6 38.1 42
LA 23.3 25.6 23.3 27.9 43
MA 0.0 2.3 27.3 70.5 44
MD 4.3 17.4 34.8 43.5 23
ME 4.0 4.0 28.0 64.0 25
MI 9.5 9.5 32.4 48.6 74
MN 3.6 6.0 31.0 59.5 84
MO 5.2 8.6 32.8 53.4 58
MS 33.3 14.8 25.9 25.9 27
MT 4.2 8.3 37.5 50.0 24
NC 11.8 13.2 38.2 36.8 68
ND 8.3 0.0 33.3 58.3 12
NE 6.3 12.5 29.2 52.1 48
NH 0.0 5.3 15.8 78.9 19
NJ 16.3 34.9 32.6 16.3 43
NM 35.3 23.5 17.6 23.5 17
NV 21.4 35.7 21.4 21.4 14
NY 29.0 15.0 21.5 34.6 107
OH 3.2 8.5 41.5 46.8 94
OK 15.7 11.8 41.2 31.4 51
OR 0.0 2.2 26.1 71.7 46
PA 23.5 18.5 25.9 32.1 81
PR 64.3 7.1 14.3 14.3 14
RI 0.0 28.6 28.6 42.9 7
SC 23.3 33.3 13.3 30.0 30
SD 15.0 5.0 25.0 55.0 20
TN 5.7 17.0 45.3 32.1 53
TX 28.0 17.7 27.4 26.8 164
UT 0.0 4.0 44.0 52.0 25
VA 13.3 26.7 26.7 33.3 45
VT 10.0 10.0 40.0 40.0 10
WA 5.3 5.3 17.5 71.9 57
WI 1.1 9.2 32.2 57.5 87
WV 15.4 15.4 42.3 26.9 26
WY 11.1 5.6 22.2 61.1 18
*Note: Facilities not performing Cesareans
are not included in these tabulations.
Table 1.5b: Performance of routine procedures while skin-to-skin among vaginal births
by state
How often are routine infant procedures performed while mother & infant
are skin-to-skin after uncomplicated vaginal birth
Rarely Sometimes Often Almost always Not sure N
All 26.2 27.7 25.9 20.0 0.2 2655
State
AK 15.8 10.5 31.6 42.1 0.0 19
AL 50.0 33.3 12.5 4.2 0.0 48
AR 68.4 13.2 10.5 7.9 0.0 38
AZ 28.9 34.2 21.1 15.8 0.0 38
CA 15.9 22.9 32.8 28.4 0.0 201
CO 10.2 22.4 32.7 34.7 0.0 49
CT 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 0.0 24
DC 16.7 33.3 0.0 50.0 0.0 6
DE 20.0 40.0 20.0 20.0 0.0 5
FL 18.4 32.7 25.5 23.5 0.0 98
GA 36.9 36.9 15.4 10.8 0.0 65
HI 0.0 11.1 33.3 55.6 0.0 9
IA 29.0 29.0 27.5 14.5 0.0 69
ID 23.3 13.3 36.7 26.7 0.0 30
IL 33.3 36.3 23.5 6.9 0.0 102
IN 33.3 27.4 20.2 19.0 0.0 84
KS 23.1 35.4 24.6 16.9 0.0 65
KY 31.0 28.6 33.3 4.8 2.4 42
LA 46.7 22.2 17.8 13.3 0.0 45
MA 10.9 17.4 37.0 34.8 0.0 46
MD 26.9 26.9 26.9 19.2 0.0 26
ME 7.7 23.1 26.9 42.3 0.0 26
MI 21.1 35.5 26.3 17.1 0.0 76
MN 16.1 23.0 35.6 24.1 1.1 87
MO 36.1 23.0 27.9 13.1 0.0 61
MS 50.0 32.1 10.7 7.1 0.0 28
MT 15.4 30.8 23.1 30.8 0.0 26
NC 31.9 30.4 21.7 15.9 0.0 69
ND 41.7 41.7 8.3 8.3 0.0 12
NE 42.9 28.6 22.4 6.1 0.0 49
NH 4.8 14.3 38.1 42.9 0.0 21
NJ 27.9 27.9 34.9 9.3 0.0 43
NM 20.0 30.0 20.0 30.0 0.0 20
NV 33.3 40.0 20.0 6.7 0.0 15
NY 30.1 28.3 28.3 13.3 0.0 113
OH 21.6 32.0 34.0 12.4 0.0 97
OK 41.2 31.4 23.5 3.9 0.0 51
OR 5.8 15.4 23.1 55.8 0.0 52
PA 27.9 30.2 23.3 17.4 1.2 86
PR 14.3 7.1 50.0 28.6 0.0 14
RI 0.0 0.0 42.9 57.1 0.0 7
SC 33.3 25.0 19.4 22.2 0.0 36
SD 14.3 33.3 38.1 14.3 0.0 21
TN 24.6 33.3 36.8 5.3 0.0 57
TX 33.5 25.7 16.2 24.1 0.5 191
UT 26.9 30.8 23.1 19.2 0.0 26
VA 24.5 28.6 24.5 20.4 2.0 49
VT 10.0 10.0 10.0 70.0 0.0 10
WA 7.5 19.4 32.8 40.3 0.0 67
WI 17.8 32.2 28.9 21.1 0.0 90
WV 25.9 37.0 22.2 14.8 0.0 27
WY 31.6 42.1 15.8 10.5 0.0 19