CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2009

1.1a: Skin-to-skin contact among vaginal births
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
How many patients experience mother-infant skin-to-skin contact
for at least 30 minutes within 1 hour of uncomplicated vaginal birth
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 11.8 21.4 23.2 43.3 0.3 2656
Type of facility
Birth center 0.8 1.7 2.5 94.9 0.0 118
Government hospital 14.5 22.9 23.5 38.8 0.2 523
Non-profit hospital 11.0 22.4 23.5 42.6 0.4 1668
Private hospital 16.0 20.9 28.6 34.5 0.0 325
Military hospital 0.0 23.8 23.8 52.4 0.0 21
Teaching hospital
Yes 6.8 22.6 32.2 36.2 2.3 177
No 12.7 22.3 23.6 41.2 0.2 2360
Size of facility
0-249 12.2 18.3 19.0 50.3 0.3 591
250-499 13.4 20.9 22.9 42.6 0.2 455
500-999 12.5 25.6 24.0 37.8 0.0 550
1000-1999 12.5 22.8 23.8 40.5 0.4 526
2000-4999 9.3 18.4 26.5 45.3 0.4 461
5000 or more 3.2 31.7 31.7 31.7 1.6 63
Unknown 0.0 0.0 10.0 90.0 0.0 10
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 12.1 21.0 19.7 47.0 0.3 1082
Level 1 or 2 NICU 12.6 22.9 25.0 39.5 0.1 1018
Level 3 NICU 9.7 19.6 26.8 43.2 0.7 556
Census region
Pacific 4.8 9.9 21.9 63.4 0.0 352
Mountain 8.1 22.0 22.4 47.5 0.0 223
West North Central 13.3 23.8 24.6 37.6 0.8 362
East North Central 12.2 26.7 23.6 37.3 0.2 450
West South Central 14.2 22.8 20.7 42.3 0.0 324
East South Central 25.3 24.7 22.4 27.6 0.0 174
New England 3.7 9.0 27.6 59.7 0.0 134
Middle Atlantic 9.2 23.8 28.8 37.5 0.8 240
South Atlantic 14.6 23.4 20.7 40.8 0.5 397

Table 1.2a: Skin-to-skin contact among Cesarean births
by hospital type, size, NICU level, and region*
How many patients experience mother-infant skin-to-skin contact
for at least 30 minutes within 2 hours of uncomplicated Cesarean birth
Few Some Many Most Not sure N
All 26.0 21.8 19.5 32.4 0.3 2502
Type of facility
Government hospital 28.0 24.9 16.6 30.5 0.0 511
Non-profit hospital 24.5 20.8 20.2 34.3 0.3 1648
Private hospital 32.1 21.8 19.9 25.9 0.3 321
Military hospital 9.5 28.6 33.3 23.8 4.8 21
Teaching hospital
Yes 25.1 26.9 18.9 28.6 0.6 175
No 26.1 21.4 19.6 32.6 0.3 2326
Size of facility
0-249 24.1 21.4 18.8 35.3 0.4 473
250-499 24.7 22.4 19.2 33.5 0.2 442
500-999 27.0 22.2 19.4 31.2 0.2 545
1000-1999 26.9 21.5 19.0 32.4 0.2 521
2000-4999 26.9 20.8 21.9 30.0 0.4 457
5000 or more 28.6 27.0 15.9 28.6 0.0 63
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 25.1 21.4 19.7 33.5 0.4 946
Level 1 or 2 NICU 26.8 23.0 18.5 31.5 0.1 1003
Level 3 NICU 26.2 20.3 21.2 32.0 0.4 553
Census region
Pacific 17.5 13.7 25.2 43.6 0.0 314
Mountain 15.6 21.0 21.5 42.0 0.0 205
West North Central 21.0 24.4 17.8 36.3 0.6 353
East North Central 25.3 25.7 18.2 30.6 0.2 435
West South Central 36.1 20.1 19.0 24.8 0.0 294
East South Central 34.7 25.3 15.9 23.5 0.6 170
New England 11.6 15.5 24.0 48.8 0.0 129
Middle Atlantic 30.3 26.4 18.6 24.7 0.0 231
South Atlantic 35.0 21.0 18.1 25.1 0.8 371
*Note: Facilities not performing Cesareans are not included in these tabulations.

Table 1.3a: Early breastfeeding initiation among vaginal births
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
What percent of healthy breastfed infants are put to
the breast within 1 hour of uncomplicated vaginal birth
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more N
All 3.4 11.8 33.8 51.0 2622
Type of facility
Birth center 0.0 1.7 5.9 92.4 118
Government hospital 4.9 15.7 33.6 45.8 509
Non-profit hospital 2.7 10.5 36.0 50.8 1648
Private hospital 6.5 15.7 33.5 44.3 325
Military hospital 0.0 19.0 23.8 57.1 21
Teaching hospital
Yes 2.3 17.4 43.6 36.6 172
No 3.7 11.9 34.4 49.9 2331
Size of facility
0-249 4.3 9.9 24.8 61.0 584
250-499 3.4 11.4 31.1 54.1 447
500-999 3.1 11.4 36.3 49.2 543
1000-1999 2.9 13.1 34.8 49.2 520
2000-4999 3.1 13.2 43.9 39.9 456
5000 or more 6.5 17.7 37.1 38.7 62
Unknown 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 10
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 4.2 10.3 28.5 57.0 1074
Level 1 or 2 NICU 2.9 12.5 34.8 49.9 1003
Level 3 NICU 2.9 13.6 42.2 41.3 545
Census region
Pacific 3.4 6.9 30.0 59.7 350
Mountain 1.8 11.0 26.5 60.7 219
West North Central 2.8 11.5 33.3 52.4 357
East North Central 2.5 8.6 37.6 51.4 444
West South Central 8.4 16.3 36.6 38.8 320
East South Central 3.0 18.5 38.7 39.9 168
New England 0.0 4.5 31.3 64.2 134
Middle Atlantic 2.1 13.3 33.8 50.8 240
South Atlantic 4.1 15.9 33.6 46.4 390

Table 1.4a: Early breastfeeding initiation among Cesarean births
by hospital type, size, NICU level, and region*
What percent of healthy breastfed infants are put to the breast
within 2 hours of uncomplicated Cesarean birth
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more N
All 13.8 13.8 29.8 42.6 2486
Type of facility
Government hospital 17.5 13.6 28.1 40.7 508
Non-profit hospital 10.6 13.5 30.5 45.4 1635
Private hospital 23.7 15.0 29.9 31.5 321
Military hospital 19.0 23.8 19.0 38.1 21
Teaching hospital
Yes 17.1 20.0 31.8 31.2 170
No 13.6 13.3 29.7 43.5 2315
Size of facility
0-249 9.1 12.8 28.7 49.4 470
250-499 12.5 12.7 30.0 44.8 440
500-999 14.5 10.6 31.1 43.8 546
1000-1999 14.3 14.6 29.3 41.8 519
2000-4999 17.8 17.8 29.6 34.7 449
5000 or more 19.7 19.7 31.1 29.5 61
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 12.6 11.9 29.5 46.0 943
Level 1 or 2 NICU 13.1 14.5 29.8 42.6 1002
Level 3 NICU 17.2 15.7 30.3 36.8 541
Census region
Pacific 16.7 10.9 24.0 48.4 312
Mountain 7.9 11.3 32.5 48.3 203
West North Central 6.0 8.2 30.1 55.7 352
East North Central 6.2 12.2 33.4 48.2 434
West South Central 24.4 18.0 29.5 28.1 295
East South Central 17.9 16.1 32.7 33.3 168
New England 1.6 6.3 30.5 61.7 128
Middle Atlantic 24.8 20.0 25.2 30.0 230
South Atlantic 18.1 19.0 30.2 32.7 364
*Note: Facilities not performing Cesareans are not included in these tabulations.

Table 1.5a: Performance of routine procedures while skin-to-skin among vaginal births
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
How often are routine infant procedures performed while mother
& infant are skin-to-skin after uncomplicated vaginal birth
Rarely Sometimes Often Almost always Not sure N
All 26.1 27.7 25.9 20.1 0.2 2654
Type of facility
Birth center 0.0 2.6 2.6 94.9 0.0 117
Government hospital 30.0 27.2 27.5 15.3 0.0 523
Non-profit hospital 25.4 29.0 26.9 18.3 0.3 1663
Private hospital 33.4 31.0 25.5 10.0 0.0 329
Military hospital 9.5 28.6 42.9 19.0 0.0 21
Teaching hospital
Yes 24.9 31.6 27.1 15.3 1.1 177
No 27.5 28.7 27.0 16.7 0.1 2359
Size of facility
0-249 27.3 20.5 19.8 32.4 0.0 590
250-499 23.1 27.9 30.1 18.9 0.0 455
500-999 27.4 30.9 26.9 14.5 0.4 551
1000-1999 28.2 30.7 26.3 14.9 0.0 525
2000-4999 24.5 29.9 27.5 17.6 0.4 461
5000 or more 20.6 30.2 33.3 14.3 1.6 63
Unknown 11.1 0.0 0.0 88.9 0.0 9
Level of Neonatal Care
Healthy newborn only 24.7 25.3 23.5 26.5 0.1 1081
Level 1 or 2 NICU 27.0 30.0 26.7 16.1 0.1 1017
Level 3 NICU 27.0 28.4 29.1 14.9 0.5 556
Census region
Pacific 12.3 20.2 31.3 36.2 0.0 351
Mountain 21.6 28.8 25.7 23.9 0.0 222
West North Central 27.1 28.5 28.5 15.7 0.3 362
East North Central 25.7 32.6 26.8 15.0 0.0 448
West South Central 40.7 24.7 16.7 17.6 0.3 324
East South Central 37.1 32.0 25.1 5.1 0.6 175
New England 11.2 17.9 31.3 39.6 0.0 134
Middle Atlantic 29.0 28.6 27.8 14.1 0.4 241
South Atlantic 26.7 31.0 22.9 19.1 0.3 397