CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2007

Table 7.1b: Elements of a written hospital policy
by state
  In-service training Prenatal breastfeeding
classes
Asking about
mothers' feeding
plans
Early initiation
of breastfeeding
Teaching lactation
maintenance
during separation
Exclusive breastfeeding 24 hr/day rooming-in Breastfeeding
on-demand
Pacifier use Referral of
mothers with
breastfeeding
problems
N
All 47.8 48.1 73.2 80.2 60.8 54.0 65.4 72.8 40.7 64.7 2687
State  
AK 29.2 33.3 87.5 83.3 62.5 50.0 75.0 62.5 33.3 70.8 24
AL 40.4 51.1 70.2 67.6 55.3 36.2 48.9 61.7 31.9 50.0 47
AR 59.3 22.2 66.7 69.6 63.0 51.9 63.0 74.1 37.0 45.8 27
AZ 36.1 27.8 61.1 73.3 58.3 61.1 61.1 69.4 30.6 55.9 36
CA 52.2 52.7 78.6 85.6 73.6 58.2 81.1 79.1 47.8 79.1 201
CO 50.0 57.1 73.8 86.1 66.7 61.9 66.7 81.0 40.5 66.7 42
CT 43.5 69.6 82.6 90.9 65.2 52.2 73.9 91.3 43.5 68.2 23
DC 25.0 50.0 75.0 100.0 75.0 75.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 75.0 4
DE 42.9 57.1 71.4 50.0 42.9 28.6 57.1 57.1 28.6 57.1 7
FL 50.5 54.7 78.9 90.6 63.2 54.7 70.5 77.9 46.3 76.7 95
GA 47.1 44.3 68.6 75.0 61.4 50.0 61.4 64.3 30.0 58.1 70
HI 44.4 33.3 66.7 75.0 77.8 55.6 77.8 66.7 44.4 66.7 9
IA 47.3 51.4 62.2 75.4 48.6 47.3 52.7 71.6 36.5 55.2 74
ID 61.5 57.7 76.9 91.3 53.8 69.2 76.9 80.8 42.3 64.0 26
IL 41.3 39.4 60.6 70.2 56.0 46.8 55.0 62.4 43.1 54.5 109
IN 48.8 41.7 66.7 74.6 48.8 47.6 53.6 63.1 27.4 49.4 84
KS 35.3 44.1 63.2 69.4 33.8 42.6 55.9 58.8 27.9 55.6 68
KY 51.2 41.9 81.4 87.5 60.5 62.8 60.5 76.7 41.9 58.5 43
LA 55.6 57.8 73.3 72.7 64.4 42.2 68.9 66.7 31.1 56.8 45
MA 69.4 63.9 77.8 88.6 88.9 77.8 63.9 80.6 66.7 88.2 36
MD 48.3 48.3 75.9 87.0 65.5 51.7 58.6 82.8 48.3 82.1 29
ME 53.3 56.7 66.7 82.8 70.0 66.7 70.0 86.7 63.3 78.6 30
MI 47.4 55.3 77.6 81.3 61.8 57.9 64.5 73.7 38.2 67.1 76
MN 42.4 45.9 68.2 71.6 52.9 58.8 58.8 71.8 43.5 69.1 85
MO 53.4 55.2 77.6 84.8 58.6 44.8 65.5 77.6 37.9 61.1 58
MS 50.0 34.2 76.3 71.4 65.8 47.4 52.6 60.5 36.8 50.0 38
MT 46.7 43.3 83.3 84.0 60.0 50.0 76.7 83.3 33.3 72.4 30
NC 45.1 47.9 77.5 85.0 74.6 62.0 54.9 80.3 46.5 73.8 71
ND 52.9 29.4 82.4 92.3 64.7 41.2 70.6 82.4 35.3 35.7 17
NE 22.9 37.5 68.8 73.2 39.6 58.3 64.6 72.9 37.5 50.0 48
NH 47.8 73.9 78.3 87.0 73.9 78.3 69.6 87.0 56.5 77.3 23
NJ 63.0 45.7 78.3 82.1 67.4 60.9 69.6 73.9 32.6 68.2 46
NM 40.0 20.0 65.0 64.3 55.0 30.0 65.0 60.0 15.0 47.4 20
NV 38.5 38.5 69.2 66.7 61.5 53.8 69.2 76.9 46.2 72.7 13
NY 56.4 66.4 81.8 92.2 81.8 77.3 80.9 85.5 65.5 84.7 110
OH 47.6 50.5 67.0 82.6 62.1 53.4 68.0 78.6 39.8 68.4 103
OK 44.9 34.7 65.3 63.2 40.8 36.7 61.2 53.1 28.6 54.5 49
OR 56.6 52.8 86.8 91.1 67.9 52.8 77.4 79.2 43.4 80.8 53
PA 45.5 46.5 80.2 88.4 66.3 54.5 67.3 82.2 43.6 68.1 101
PR 72.7 45.5 81.8 87.5 72.7 72.7 81.8 72.7 0.0 63.6 11
RI 60.0 60.0 80.0 80.0 100.0 80.0 80.0 100.0 60.0 100.0 5
SC 45.9 43.2 75.7 71.4 56.8 35.1 56.8 64.9 32.4 48.6 37
SD 68.4 63.2 73.7 88.2 63.2 52.6 42.1 84.2 52.6 72.2 19
TN 53.1 51.6 73.4 85.1 65.6 56.3 64.1 67.2 39.1 61.9 64
TX 43.2 46.8 68.4 66.4 48.4 44.7 60.5 60.5 29.5 50.0 190
UT 58.1 54.8 77.4 80.8 51.6 41.9 54.8 71.0 38.7 60.0 31
VA 51.0 40.8 71.4 79.5 61.2 55.1 73.5 77.6 44.9 60.0 49
VT 27.3 45.5 72.7 90.9 81.8 81.8 90.9 81.8 81.8 90.0 11
WA 33.8 41.5 70.8 84.2 58.5 55.4 75.4 73.8 32.3 61.7 65
WI 53.8 51.6 79.6 89.2 63.4 65.6 65.6 81.7 57.0 74.4 93
WV 40.7 33.3 74.1 70.0 40.7 40.7 59.3 48.1 33.3 52.0 27
WY 40.0 26.7 60.0 78.6 40.0 46.7 66.7 60.0 33.3 73.3 15



Table 7.2b: Modes used to inform staff of breastfeeding policies
by state
  In-service
training
Policy is
posted
Newsletter New staff
training
New staff
orientation
Staff
meeting
Word of
mouth
N
All 73.8 70.9 15.7 78.4 77.7 78.7 67.5 2687
State
AK 45.8 62.5 8.3 70.8 62.5 79.2 70.8 24
AL 72.3 66.0 12.8 74.5 80.9 74.5 59.6 47
AR 77.8 85.2 7.4 81.5 77.8 88.9 85.2 27
AZ 72.2 77.8 11.1 83.3 83.3 86.1 77.8 36
CA 86.6 71.1 18.4 79.1 77.6 83.1 65.7 201
CO 83.3 69.0 19.0 90.5 83.3 85.7 83.3 42
CT 82.6 87.0 4.3 78.3 82.6 87.0 69.6 23
DC 100.0 100.0 25.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 75.0 4
DE 57.1 42.9 14.3 57.1 42.9 42.9 57.1 7
FL 73.7 62.1 14.7 78.9 76.8 75.8 63.2 95
GA 77.1 72.9 11.4 77.1 68.6 70.0 57.1 70
HI 55.6 55.6 0.0 55.6 66.7 66.7 77.8 9
IA 66.2 64.9 17.6 82.4 81.1 79.7 67.6 74
ID 73.1 73.1 15.4 69.2 65.4 73.1 69.2 26
IL 67.9 69.7 14.7 78.9 76.1 74.3 64.2 109
IN 66.7 70.2 16.7 75.0 78.6 81.0 60.7 84
KS 57.4 48.5 16.2 60.3 66.2 63.2 57.4 68
KY 79.1 74.4 14.0 81.4 86.0 90.7 72.1 43
LA 86.7 75.6 2.2 77.8 84.4 80.0 60.0 45
MA 94.4 88.9 25.0 88.9 88.9 94.4 58.3 36
MD 72.4 82.8 13.8 86.2 75.9 86.2 69.0 29
ME 70.0 80.0 16.7 90.0 83.3 80.0 63.3 30
MI 76.3 71.1 18.4 78.9 77.6 78.9 59.2 76
MN 69.4 69.4 21.2 80.0 74.1 77.6 64.7 85
MO 81.0 70.7 22.4 82.8 87.9 87.9 84.5 58
MS 63.2 65.8 7.9 78.9 76.3 68.4 63.2 38
MT 90.0 70.0 6.7 73.3 80.0 80.0 80.0 30
NC 74.6 73.2 9.9 81.7 83.1 81.7 76.1 71
ND 70.6 64.7 35.3 88.2 82.4 82.4 70.6 17
NE 62.5 62.5 4.2 60.4 64.6 62.5 58.3 48
NH 69.6 78.3 21.7 91.3 78.3 78.3 73.9 23
NJ 80.4 82.6 23.9 87.0 87.0 84.8 76.1 46
NM 60.0 60.0 20.0 75.0 75.0 85.0 80.0 20
NV 53.8 53.8 7.7 69.2 53.8 69.2 53.8 13
NY 79.1 80.0 11.8 83.6 80.0 85.5 70.0 110
OH 77.7 78.6 21.4 86.4 84.5 84.5 78.6 103
OK 75.5 69.4 8.2 71.4 73.5 75.5 85.7 49
OR 77.4 81.1 30.2 73.6 75.5 75.5 69.8 53
PA 82.2 85.1 16.8 86.1 86.1 84.2 71.3 101
PR 100.0 36.4 18.2 100.0 90.9 90.9 72.7 11
RI 80.0 80.0 20.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 80.0 5
SC 67.6 78.4 13.5 75.7 73.0 67.6 56.8 37
SD 73.7 68.4 15.8 68.4 89.5 78.9 78.9 19
TN 75.0 71.9 12.5 82.8 78.1 81.3 59.4 64
TX 67.4 59.5 12.6 64.7 65.3 68.4 60.0 190
UT 77.4 74.2 22.6 87.1 90.3 90.3 74.2 31
VA 73.5 71.4 18.4 85.7 83.7 77.6 71.4 49
VT 72.7 81.8 18.2 90.9 90.9 81.8 72.7 11
WA 61.5 70.8 18.5 69.2 70.8 69.2 56.9 65
WI 77.4 72.0 19.4 83.9 83.9 86.0 74.2 93
WV 44.4 55.6 11.1 74.1 74.1 70.4 63.0 27
WY 60.0 66.7 26.7 66.7 73.3 66.7 80.0 15



Table 7.3b: Documentation of breastfeeding practices
by state
  Does the facility document
rates of breastfeeding among
patients
N
No/not sure

Only intention
at admission
Yes, rates are
assessed
All 29.5 17.9 52.7 2448
State
AK 39.1 26.1 34.8 23
AL 18.6 20.9 60.5 43
AR 50.0 25.0 25.0 24
AZ 32.4 20.6 47.1 34
CA 30.2 14.8 54.9 182
CO 30.6 2.8 66.7 36
CT 9.1 27.3 63.6 22
DC 25.0 0.0 75.0 4
DE 0.0 0.0 100.0 6
FL 27.3 17.0 55.7 88
GA 30.6 21.0 48.4 62
HI 42.9 0.0 57.1 7
IA 31.0 15.5 53.5 71
ID 28.0 12.0 60.0 25
IL 35.0 15.0 50.0 100
IN 20.3 26.6 53.2 79
KS 47.8 10.4 41.8 67
KY 26.3 28.9 44.7 38
LA 32.5 22.5 45.0 40
MA 3.2 19.4 77.4 31
MD 30.8 23.1 46.2 26
ME 7.1 7.1 85.7 28
MI 34.3 17.9 47.8 67
MN 44.9 15.4 39.7 78
MO 25.5 20.0 54.5 55
MS 41.7 22.2 36.1 36
MT 41.4 13.8 44.8 29
NC 31.3 15.6 53.1 64
ND 37.5 31.3 31.3 16
NE 52.3 13.6 34.1 44
NH 4.8 9.5 85.7 21
NJ 10.0 15.0 75.0 40
NM 25.0 20.0 55.0 20
NV 44.4 22.2 33.3 9
NY 13.5 13.5 73.0 89
OH 4.5 20.2 75.3 89
OK 56.5 15.2 28.3 46
OR 32.7 20.4 46.9 49
PA 26.6 17.0 56.4 94
PR 20.0 20.0 60.0 10
RI 0.0 0.0 100.0 2
SC 20.0 37.1 42.9 35
SD 21.1 5.3 73.7 19
TN 38.2 27.3 34.5 55
TX 42.3 16.0 41.7 175
UT 40.0 10.0 50.0 30
VA 19.6 30.4 50.0 46
VT 0.0 20.0 80.0 10
WA 33.3 15.0 51.7 60
WI 17.6 18.8 63.5 85
WV 34.6 19.2 46.2 26
WY 23.1 23.1 53.8 13



Table 7.4b: Supports offered to breastfeeding staff members
by state
  Designated room
to express milk
On-site
child care
Electric breast
pump provided
Permission to
use breaks to
express milk
Breastfeeding
support group
Lactation
consultant
available
Paid maternity
leave
N
All 68.9 14.2 77.0 93.6 18.0 66.5 31.8 2687
State
AK 58.3 20.8 70.8 91.7 12.5 54.2 20.8 24
AL 70.2 8.5 61.7 91.5 6.4 59.6 17.0 47
AR 59.3 22.2 66.7 96.3 3.7 48.1 22.2 27
AZ 61.1 11.1 75.0 97.2 22.2 52.8 44.4 36
CA 71.1 10.9 80.6 93.5 22.4 64.7 57.7 201
CO 73.8 14.3 81.0 92.9 11.9 76.2 23.8 42
CT 82.6 30.4 91.3 91.3 30.4 87.0 17.4 23
DC 100.0 25.0 100.0 100.0 50.0 100.0 0.0 4
DE 28.6 42.9 71.4 57.1 14.3 57.1 14.3 7
FL 67.4 18.9 82.1 93.7 32.6 71.6 30.5 95
GA 57.1 15.7 81.4 95.7 17.1 62.9 21.4 70
HI 77.8 11.1 88.9 100.0 11.1 55.6 44.4 9
IA 82.4 14.9 79.7 93.2 13.5 63.5 39.2 74
ID 61.5 23.1 65.4 88.5 34.6 80.8 26.9 26
IL 73.4 19.3 85.3 92.7 22.0 78.0 29.4 109
IN 76.2 8.3 84.5 94.0 19.0 71.4 29.8 84
KS 54.4 7.4 57.4 89.7 14.7 41.2 27.9 68
KY 58.1 16.3 69.8 90.7 14.0 72.1 32.6 43
LA 60.0 6.7 73.3 86.7 8.9 53.3 24.4 45
MA 69.4 22.2 86.1 97.2 30.6 91.7 27.8 36
MD 72.4 24.1 89.7 100.0 24.1 69.0 27.6 29
ME 83.3 13.3 90.0 100.0 40.0 76.7 26.7 30
MI 77.6 19.7 81.6 94.7 25.0 71.1 57.9 76
MN 67.1 3.5 69.4 98.8 8.2 65.9 24.7 85
MO 69.0 20.7 82.8 96.6 12.1 62.1 20.7 58
MS 44.7 13.2 57.9 86.8 15.8 44.7 21.1 38
MT 46.7 3.3 56.7 96.7 10.0 70.0 30.0 30
NC 73.2 14.1 88.7 95.8 16.9 71.8 28.2 71
ND 76.5 17.6 64.7 88.2 5.9 58.8 23.5 17
NE 54.2 8.3 54.2 85.4 10.4 37.5 29.2 48
NH 82.6 21.7 91.3 95.7 26.1 91.3 13.0 23
NJ 78.3 41.3 89.1 100.0 26.1 67.4 47.8 46
NM 80.0 10.0 70.0 95.0 20.0 40.0 30.0 20
NV 53.8 15.4 76.9 84.6 7.7 61.5 23.1 13
NY 71.8 16.4 85.5 94.5 27.3 84.5 34.5 110
OH 82.5 19.4 91.3 94.2 28.2 90.3 32.0 103
OK 67.3 14.3 73.5 87.8 10.2 63.3 24.5 49
OR 83.0 13.2 75.5 98.1 17.0 67.9 20.8 53
PA 66.3 14.9 84.2 93.1 17.8 67.3 28.7 101
PR 81.8 0.0 18.2 100.0 27.3 45.5 100.0 11
RI 60.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 20.0 60.0 40.0 5
SC 59.5 16.2 70.3 94.6 16.2 64.9 37.8 37
SD 63.2 5.3 52.6 100.0 5.3 52.6 26.3 19
TN 67.2 10.9 71.9 93.8 10.9 54.7 25.0 64
TX 61.1 6.8 63.7 87.4 12.6 52.1 18.9 190
UT 61.3 19.4 83.9 100.0 9.7 54.8 22.6 31
VA 71.4 20.4 87.8 95.9 14.3 75.5 20.4 49
VT 81.8 18.2 90.9 100.0 45.5 81.8 45.5 11
WA 67.7 7.7 75.4 95.4 12.3 64.6 40.0 65
WI 82.8 12.9 79.6 96.8 12.9 84.9 48.4 93
WV 55.6 3.7 66.7 96.3 3.7 51.9 18.5 27
WY 40.0 20.0 66.7 86.7 20.0 66.7 40.0 15



Table 7.5b: Facility's receipt of free formula
by state
  Does the facility receive
infant formula free of charge
N
Yes No Not sure
All 88.1 9.4 2.6 2652
State
AK 62.5 33.3 4.2 24
AL 95.7 2.2 2.2 46
AR 88.9 3.7 7.4 27
AZ 91.4 2.9 5.7 35
CA 78.8 17.7 3.5 198
CO 90.5 7.1 2.4 42
CT 86.4 13.6 0.0 22
DC 75.0 25.0 0.0 4
DE 85.7 14.3 0.0 7
FL 79.8 18.1 2.1 94
GA 92.8 5.8 1.4 69
HI 100.0 0.0 0.0 9
IA 88.7 4.2 7.0 71
ID 84.0 12.0 4.0 25
IL 95.4 2.8 1.9 108
IN 90.5 8.3 1.2 84
KS 95.5 3.0 1.5 67
KY 90.7 4.7 4.7 43
LA 97.7 0.0 2.3 44
MA 91.7 8.3 0.0 36
MD 79.3 17.2 3.4 29
ME 75.0 25.0 0.0 28
MI 95.9 4.1 0.0 74
MN 85.7 13.1 1.2 84
MO 93.1 3.4 3.4 58
MS 100.0 0.0 0.0 38
MT 86.7 10.0 3.3 30
NC 95.7 1.4 2.9 70
ND 82.4 11.8 5.9 17
NE 93.5 2.2 4.3 46
NH 59.1 36.4 4.5 22
NJ 97.8 0.0 2.2 45
NM 70.0 30.0 0.0 20
NV 92.3 7.7 0.0 13
NY 87.0 9.3 3.7 108
OH 94.0 4.0 2.0 100
OK 91.8 2.0 6.1 49
OR 71.7 18.9 9.4 53
PA 94.0 4.0 2.0 100
PR 100.0 0.0 0.0 11
RI 60.0 40.0 0.0 5
SC 91.9 5.4 2.7 37
SD 89.5 5.3 5.3 19
TN 89.1 9.4 1.6 64
TX 87.2 11.7 1.1 188
UT 100.0 0.0 0.0 31
VA 91.5 6.4 2.1 47
VT 90.9 9.1 0.0 11
WA 73.8 21.5 4.6 65
WI 80.6 18.3 1.1 93
WV 88.9 11.1 0.0 27
WY 100.0 0.0 0.0 15



Table 7.6b: Inclusion of breastfeeding in prenatal patient education
by state
  Does the facility include
breastfeeding as component
of prenatal education
N
No/not sure Yes
All 7.4 92.6 2606
State
AK 21.7 78.3 23
AL 4.3 95.7 46
AR 30.8 69.2 26
AZ 19.4 80.6 36
CA 6.3 93.7 189
CO 0.0 100.0 41
CT 0.0 100.0 23
DC 0.0 100.0 4
DE 0.0 100.0 7
FL 6.4 93.6 94
GA 13.0 87.0 69
HI 22.2 77.8 9
IA 4.2 95.8 72
ID 0.0 100.0 26
IL 3.8 96.2 104
IN 0.0 100.0 82
KS 12.1 87.9 66
KY 11.9 88.1 42
LA 14.0 86.0 43
MA 0.0 100.0 36
MD 3.6 96.4 28
ME 3.4 96.6 29
MI 4.0 96.0 75
MN 6.0 94.0 83
MO 1.8 98.2 56
MS 13.9 86.1 36
MT 20.7 79.3 29
NC 10.1 89.9 69
ND 5.9 94.1 17
NE 8.5 91.5 47
NH 0.0 100.0 22
NJ 0.0 100.0 44
NM 20.0 80.0 20
NV 8.3 91.7 12
NY 4.8 95.2 104
OH 1.0 99.0 102
OK 8.7 91.3 46
OR 0.0 100.0 53
PA 6.1 93.9 98
PR 54.5 45.5 11
RI 0.0 100.0 3
SC 8.1 91.9 37
SD 0.0 100.0 18
TN 7.9 92.1 63
TX 13.1 86.9 183
UT 6.9 93.1 29
VA 4.3 95.7 47
VT 9.1 90.9 11
WA 17.5 82.5 63
WI 1.1 98.9 92
WV 19.2 80.8 26
WY 13.3 86.7 15



Table 7.7b: Existence of a designated lactation coordinator
by state
  Does the facility have
a designated lactation
coordinator
N
Yes No
All 69.8 30.2 2634
State
AK 45.8 54.2 24
AL 56.5 43.5 46
AR 42.3 57.7 26
AZ 61.1 38.9 36
CA 74.4 25.6 195
CO 78.6 21.4 42
CT 77.3 22.7 22
DC 100.0 0.0 4
DE 85.7 14.3 7
FL 75.3 24.7 93
GA 65.7 34.3 70
HI 55.6 44.4 9
IA 57.5 42.5 73
ID 76.9 23.1 26
IL 83.2 16.8 107
IN 70.2 29.8 84
KS 45.3 54.7 64
KY 72.1 27.9 43
LA 65.9 34.1 44
MA 94.1 5.9 34
MD 69.0 31.0 29
ME 76.7 23.3 30
MI 76.7 23.3 73
MN 74.1 25.9 81
MO 61.4 38.6 57
MS 54.1 45.9 37
MT 56.7 43.3 30
NC 78.3 21.7 69
ND 64.7 35.3 17
NE 40.4 59.6 47
NH 86.4 13.6 22
NJ 76.1 23.9 46
NM 35.0 65.0 20
NV 61.5 38.5 13
NY 90.4 9.6 104
OH 92.0 8.0 100
OK 65.3 34.7 49
OR 75.5 24.5 53
PA 78.2 21.8 101
PR 40.0 60.0 10
RI 100.0 0.0 5
SC 63.9 36.1 36
SD 63.2 36.8 19
TN 57.1 42.9 63
TX 58.3 41.7 187
UT 67.7 32.3 31
VA 66.0 34.0 47
VT 72.7 27.3 11
WA 56.9 43.1 65
WI 83.5 16.5 91
WV 63.0 37.0 27
WY 73.3 26.7 15