CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2007

Table 7.1a: Elements of a written hospital policy
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
 
  In-service training Prenatal breastfeeding
classes
Asking about
mothers' feeding
plans
Early initiation
of breastfeeding
Teaching lactation
maintenance
during separation
Exclusive breastfeeding 24 hr/day rooming-in Breastfeeding
on-demand
Pacifier use Referral of
mothers with
breastfeeding
problems
N
All 47.8 48.1 73.3 80.3 60.8 54.0 65.4 72.8 40.7 64.7 2690
Type of facility
Birth center 38.5 73.8 82.0 86.8 47.5 32.0 64.8 74.6 24.6 77.7 122
Government hospital 46.8 39.5 68.8 74.1 49.1 48.3 63.9 64.8 33.3 54.8 532
Non-profit hospital 49.1 49.5 74.1 82.2 65.4 58.2 66.0 75.6 44.8 68.3 1698
Private hospital 45.7 43.1 73.3 75.9 60.5 48.2 63.7 69.1 35.7 56.2 311
Military hospital 59.3 70.4 70.4 83.3 70.4 63.0 85.2 81.5 59.3 73.1 27
Size of facility
0-249 38.6 41.7 68.7 73.2 42.1 43.8 63.8 66.5 29.8 56.5 630
250-499 42.2 46.4 73.2 78.0 52.7 47.8 66.3 69.6 36.6 58.9 448
500-999 46.2 46.2 72.3 78.9 58.8 52.9 65.3 69.7 40.3 61.9 548
1000-1999 53.2 49.9 74.5 84.1 72.2 59.9 64.6 77.2 45.2 68.0 553
2000-4999 59.8 55.9 77.5 86.9 79.8 67.0 67.7 80.7 52.7 79.1 440
5000 or more 63.4 67.6 85.9 93.2 88.7 64.8 67.6 87.3 54.9 79.7 71
Teaching hospital
  Yes 57.1 53.8 72.5 85.5 80.2 65.9 65.9 78.6 53.8 74.9 182
No 47.6 46.4 72.9 79.4 60.0 54.2 65.4 72.2 40.5 63.2 2386
Birth center 38.5 73.8 82.0 86.8 47.5 32.0 64.8 74.6 24.6 77.7 122
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 24.1 17.2 24.1 25.9 27.6 24.1 31.0 34.5 20.7 28.6 29
Healthy newborn only 41.4 45.4 71.8 77.0 50.0 46.2 66.0 69.5 32.8 59.3 1109
Level 1 or 2 NICU 49.3 46.9 72.7 80.5 63.6 57.1 63.9 72.2 43.3 64.8 1075
Level 3 NICU 61.0 58.9 81.1 90.5 81.6 66.9 69.6 83.9 54.1 79.5 477
Census region
Pacific 47.7 48.9 78.8 85.9 69.5 56.2 79.1 76.8 43.2 75.5 354
Mountain 47.4 43.2 71.8 80.0 57.3 53.5 66.7 74.2 35.2 63.4 213
West North Central 43.1 47.2 68.6 75.8 48.8 50.1 58.5 71.5 37.7 58.9 369
East North Central 47.5 47.3 69.7 79.7 58.5 54.0 61.3 71.8 41.5 62.5 465
West South Central 46.6 44.4 68.5 67.1 50.8 43.7 62.1 61.4 30.2 51.4 311
East South Central 49.0 45.8 75.0 78.5 62.0 51.0 57.3 66.7 37.5 56.1 192
New England 53.1 63.3 75.8 87.2 77.3 71.1 71.1 85.9 60.9 81.0 128
Middle Atlantic 53.3 54.9 80.5 89.0 73.2 65.4 73.5 82.1 51.0 75.1 257
South Atlantic 48.1 46.6 75.1 81.9 62.8 52.4 63.3 72.1 39.7 66.2 401



Table 7.2a: Modes used to inform staff of breastfeeding policies
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  In-service training Policy is posted Newsletter New staff training New staff orientation Staff meeting Word of mouth N
All 73.8 70.9 15.7 78.4 77.7 78.7 67.5 2690
Type of facility
Birth center 60.7 38.5 4.1 62.3 59.0 64.8 59.0 122
Government hospital 69.4 67.3 12.6 71.4 73.7 74.1 65.4 532
Non-profit hospital 75.7 75.5 18.5 82.3 80.8 80.9 68.4 1698
Private hospital 75.6 65.0 10.9 75.6 75.6 80.4 68.8 311
Military hospital 81.5 70.4 11.1 70.4 66.7 77.8 77.8 27
Size of facility
0-249 59.8 54.8 6.0 66.8 68.7 68.7 64.6 630
250-499 66.1 70.5 10.0 72.8 73.9 78.8 67.2 448
500-999 74.6 73.4 14.6 81.4 79.2 80.1 69.5 548
1000-1999 82.1 76.5 22.2 82.8 80.7 81.0 67.1 553
2000-4999 88.0 82.0 26.6 89.1 86.8 87.0 69.1 440
5000 or more 88.7 85.9 28.2 91.5 88.7 87.3 74.6 71
Teaching hospital
  Yes 86.3 81.9 22.5 87.4 85.2 85.2 63.7 182
No 73.6 71.8 15.8 78.5 78.0 79.0 68.3 2386
Birth center 60.7 38.5 4.1 62.3 59.0 64.8 59.0 122
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 34.5 27.6 10.3 31.0 27.6 27.6 20.7 29
Healthy newborn only 64.7 62.8 8.6 71.8 72.5 73.2 65.5 1109
Level 1 or 2 NICU 76.7 75.4 18.2 81.1 79.6 81.7 69.4 1075
Level 3 NICU 90.8 82.2 27.0 90.4 88.3 88.1 71.1 477
Census region
Pacific 76.8 71.5 18.9 75.1 74.6 78.8 65.3 354
Mountain 74.6 70.0 16.0 79.3 78.4 81.7 76.5 213
West North Central 67.8 63.7 17.9 74.5 76.2 75.3 67.2 369
East North Central 73.1 72.5 18.1 80.9 80.2 80.9 68.0 465
West South Central 72.3 65.6 10.0 69.1 70.4 73.0 66.2 311
East South Central 72.9 69.8 12.0 79.7 80.2 79.2 63.0 192
New England 79.7 83.6 18.0 88.3 85.2 85.9 66.4 128
Middle Atlantic 80.5 82.5 16.0 85.2 83.7 84.8 71.6 257
South Atlantic 72.6 69.1 13.5 80.3 76.6 75.8 65.6 401



Table 7.3a: Documentation of breastfeeding practices
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  Does the facility document
rates of breastfeeding among
patients
N
No/not sure

Only intention
at admission
Yes, rates are
assessed
All 29.5 17.9 52.6 2451
Type of facility
Birth center 15.7 2.6 81.7 115
Government hospital 40.2 16.7 43.1 497
Non-profit hospital 25.0 19.5 55.5 1529
Private hospital 40.7 18.2 41.1 285
Military hospital 28.0 8.0 64.0 25
Size of facility
0-249 38.0 13.2 48.8 584
250-499 35.8 17.1 47.2 422
500-999 27.7 18.0 54.3 499
1000-1999 23.8 23.0 53.3 501
2000-4999 21.4 19.8 58.9 384
5000 or more 18.0 13.1 68.9 61
Teaching hospital
  Yes 20.4 15.9 63.7 157
No 30.9 18.8 50.3 2179
Birth center 15.7 2.6 81.7 115
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 28.6 14.3 57.1 7
Healthy newborn only 36.2 16.1 47.8 1034
Level 1 or 2 NICU 26.4 19.9 53.7 987
Level 3 NICU 20.3 17.7 61.9 423
Census region
Pacific 32.2 16.1 51.7 323
Mountain 33.2 13.8 53.1 196
West North Central 38.9 15.1 46.0 350
East North Central 22.1 19.5 58.3 420
West South Central 43.9 17.5 38.6 285
East South Central 31.4 25.0 43.6 172
New England 5.3 15.8 78.9 114
Middle Atlantic 18.4 15.2 66.4 223
South Atlantic 26.9 21.5 51.6 368



Table 7.4a: Supports offered to breastfeeding staff members
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  Designated room
to express milk
On-site child
care
Electric breast
pump provided
Permission to
use breaks to
express milk
Breastfeeding
support group
Lactation consultant
available
Paid maternity
leave
N
All 68.9 14.2 77.0 93.6 18.0 66.5 31.8 2690
Type of facility
Birth center 56.6 13.9 39.3 78.7 32.8 57.4 18.9 122
Government hospital 59.4 8.8 69.4 92.3 11.5 57.1 30.3 532
Non-profit hospital 73.6 17.5 82.4 95.2 19.4 72.0 33.4 1698
Private hospital 63.3 5.8 74.3 92.9 14.8 55.9 28.0 311
Military hospital 81.5 7.4 88.9 92.6 25.9 74.1 66.7 27
Size of facility
0-249 52.9 5.2 49.7 88.7 11.3 47.0 27.6 630
250-499 61.4 6.9 75.9 92.2 15.6 56.0 29.0 448
500-999 69.7 13.0 88.0 94.7 19.0 69.7 28.3 548
1000-1999 79.2 18.3 86.6 96.9 22.6 78.7 37.4 553
2000-4999 83.2 27.7 89.3 96.1 21.1 83.9 36.4 440
5000 or more 83.1 32.4 90.1 94.4 29.6 80.3 42.3 71
Teaching hospital
  Yes 83.0 29.1 89.0 94.5 19.2 84.1 35.7 182
No 68.4 13.0 78.0 94.3 17.1 65.7 32.2 2386
Birth center 56.6 13.9 39.3 78.7 32.8 57.4 18.9 122
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 20.7 10.3 31.0 34.5 6.9 17.2 10.3 29
Healthy newborn only 57.3 7.0 63.1 90.6 14.7 52.8 28.9 1109
Level 1 or 2 NICU 74.6 15.3 86.1 96.5 20.9 73.4 33.1 1075
Level 3 NICU 85.7 28.3 91.4 97.5 19.7 86.2 36.9 477
Census region
Pacific 71.8 11.3 78.2 94.6 18.9 64.4 46.3 354
Mountain 61.5 14.1 72.8 93.9 16.9 63.8 30.0 213
West North Central 66.7 10.6 68.3 93.5 11.1 55.6 28.2 369
East North Central 78.5 16.1 84.7 94.4 21.5 79.8 38.5 465
West South Central 61.7 9.3 66.9 88.1 10.9 53.7 20.9 311
East South Central 61.5 12.0 66.1 91.1 11.5 57.8 24.0 192
New England 78.1 20.3 89.8 96.9 32.8 85.2 25.0 128
Middle Atlantic 70.8 20.2 85.6 94.9 23.3 74.7 34.6 257
South Atlantic 66.1 16.7 80.5 95.0 20.4 67.6 28.2 401



Table 7.5a: Facility's receipt of free formula
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  Does the facility receive
infant formula free of charge
N
Yes No Not sure
All 88.1 9.3 2.6 2655
Type of facility
Birth center 23.1 76.0 0.8 121
Government hospital 91.5 5.3 3.2 529
Non-profit hospital 90.8 7.0 2.2 1674
Private hospital 95.1 1.3 3.6 305
Military hospital 65.4 26.9 7.7 26
Size of facility
0-249 77.8 19.0 3.2 617
250-499 92.4 5.2 2.5 445
500-999 92.1 6.5 1.5 542
1000-1999 91.6 6.2 2.2 549
2000-4999 87.9 8.6 3.5 431
5000 or more 94.4 2.8 2.8 71
Teaching hospital
  Yes 86.6 8.9 4.5 179
No 91.5 5.9 2.5 2355
Birth center 23.1 76.0 0.8 121
Level of Neonatal Care 90.9 0.0 9.1 11
Unknown
Healthy newborn only 83.6 13.6 2.8 1098
Level 1 or 2 NICU 91.9 6.3 1.9 1070
Level 3 NICU 89.9 6.7 3.4 476
Census region
Pacific 76.4 19.1 4.6 351
Mountain 89.6 8.1 2.4 211
West North Central 90.3 6.1 3.6 362
East North Central 91.3 7.4 1.3 459
West South Central 89.6 7.8 2.6 308
East South Central 93.2 4.7 2.1 191
New England 79.8 19.4 0.8 124
Middle Atlantic 91.7 5.5 2.8 253
South Atlantic 88.6 9.3 2.0 396



Table 7.6a: Inclusion of breastfeeding in prenatal patient education
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  Does the facility include
breastfeeding as component
of prenatal education
N
No/not sure Yes
All 7.5 92.5 2609
Type of facility
Birth center 10.2 89.8 118
Government hospital 14.3 85.7 511
Non-profit hospital 4.8 95.2 1651
Private hospital 10.3 89.7 302
Military hospital 0.0 100.0 27
Size of facility
0-249 16.6 83.4 596
250-499 9.1 90.9 439
500-999 4.6 95.4 542
1000-1999 3.3 96.7 538
2000-4999 2.6 97.4 427
5000 or more 3.0 97.0 67
Teaching hospital
  Yes 4.0 96.0 173
No 7.6 92.4 2318
Birth center 10.2 89.8 118
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 4.2 95.8 24
Healthy newborn only 12.5 87.5 1072
Level 1 or 2 NICU 4.1 95.9 1052
Level 3 NICU 3.7 96.3 461
Census region
Pacific 8.8 91.2 339
Mountain 10.6 89.4 208
West North Central 6.1 93.9 359
East North Central 2.0 98.0 455
West South Central 14.1 85.9 298
East South Central 9.1 90.9 187
New England 1.6 98.4 124
Middle Atlantic 4.5 95.5 246
South Atlantic 10.2 89.8 393



Table 7.7a: Existence of a designated lactation coordinator
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  Does the facility have
a designated lactation
coordinator
N
Yes No
All 69.7 30.3 2636
Type of facility
Birth center 49.2 50.8 120
Government hospital 57.3 42.7 527
Non-profit hospital 76.5 23.5 1660
Private hospital 62.4 37.6 303
Military hospital 69.2 30.8 26
Size of facility
0-249 48.1 51.9 621
250-499 54.8 45.2 438
500-999 70.5 29.5 536
1000-1999 84.7 15.3 544
2000-4999 92.5 7.5 426
5000 or more 93.0 7.0 71
Teaching hospital
  Yes 93.8 6.3 176
No 69.0 31.0 2340
Birth center 49.2 50.8 120
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 50.0 50.0 10
Healthy newborn only 53.5 46.5 1100
Level 1 or 2 NICU 76.9 23.1 1056
Level 3 NICU 92.1 7.9 470
Census region
Pacific 68.6 31.4 347
Mountain 65.3 34.7 213
West North Central 58.1 41.9 358
East North Central 81.8 18.2 455
West South Central 59.2 40.8 306
East South Central 59.8 40.2 189
New England 83.9 16.1 124
Middle Atlantic 82.9 17.1 251
South Atlantic 70.0 30.0 393