CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2007

Table 4.1a: Separation of mother & infant during postpartum transition
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  How many minutes are mothers & infants separated
following vaginal birth in transition to recovery room
N
No separation <30 minutes 31-60 minutes 61-90 minutes >90 minutes
All 49.9 9.6 18.4 7.0 15.1 2609
Type of facility
Birth center 93.3 5.0 1.7 0.0 0.0 119
Government hospital 41.1 14.1 21.1 7.4 16.3 516
Non-profit hospital 51.6 9.4 18.7 6.8 13.5 1649
Private hospital 35.1 5.0 20.4 10.0 29.4 299
Military hospital 88.5 3.8 0.0 7.7 0.0 26
Size of facility
0-249 56.6 20.0 15.9 2.4 5.0 615
250-499 52.2 12.0 19.9 7.2 8.8 433
500-999 49.9 6.7 21.0 8.2 14.2 537
1000-1999 45.0 4.3 17.2 10.3 23.3 536
2000-4999 45.8 3.4 19.9 7.2 23.7 417
5000 or more 39.4 2.8 12.7 9.9 35.2 71
Teaching hospital
  Yes 43.1 5.7 12.1 9.8 29.3 174
No 48.2 10.1 19.8 7.1 14.8 2316
Birth center 93.3 5.0 1.7 0.0 0.0 119
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 60.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 30.0 10
Healthy newborn only 53.9 15.5 17.0 5.4 8.1 1083
Level 1 or 2 NICU 49.5 6.6 19.3 7.0 17.7 1049
Level 3 NICU 41.3 2.8 20.3 10.5 25.1 467
Census region
Pacific 75.0 7.5 7.8 3.7 6.0 348
Mountain 51.0 13.9 23.1 4.8 7.2 208
West North Central 49.6 24.1 20.4 2.5 3.4 357
East North Central 59.1 9.6 18.4 4.7 8.2 450
West South Central 32.5 4.6 18.7 9.2 35.1 305
East South Central 23.2 4.9 22.7 15.1 34.1 185
New England 70.4 5.6 14.4 7.2 2.4 125
Middle Atlantic 35.9 8.6 27.8 8.6 19.2 245
South Atlantic 45.1 3.9 16.8 11.1 23.1 386



Table 4.2a: Separation of mother & infant at night
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  How many hours are breastfeeding mother-infant
pairs separated at night
N
No separation 1-2 hours
3-5 hours
5-7 hours
8 or more hours
All 67.3 12.0 9.4 9.5 1.8 2583
Type of facility
Birth center 98.3 0.8 0.0 0.8 0.0 119
Government hospital 62.6 16.6 8.6 10.5 1.8 513
Non-profit hospital 67.4 10.8 10.5 9.9 1.4 1635
Private hospital 61.0 14.8 9.3 10.0 4.8 290
Military hospital 84.6 15.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 26
Size of facility
0-249 70.8 10.4 8.4 9.9 0.5 607
250-499 61.0 15.0 11.5 10.6 1.8 433
500-999 64.4 12.2 12.2 9.3 1.9 525
1000-1999 65.9 13.1 8.8 9.9 2.3 525
2000-4999 73.7 10.4 6.4 7.8 1.7 422
5000 or more 70.4 7.0 5.6 8.5 8.5 71
Teaching hospital
  Yes 74.9 10.3 4.6 7.4 2.9 175
No 65.1 12.7 10.2 10.1 1.8 2289
Birth center 98.3 0.8 0.0 0.8 0.0 119
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 60.0 10.0 30.0 0.0 0.0 10
Healthy newborn only 68.5 11.2 8.7 10.3 1.3 1073
Level 1 or 2 NICU 64.7 13.6 10.2 9.3 2.1 1038
Level 3 NICU 70.6 10.4 8.7 8.2 2.2 462
Census region
Pacific 87.9 9.8 1.1 0.3 0.9 348
Mountain 73.7 10.7 8.3 6.3 1.0 205
West North Central 61.1 12.3 12.3 13.2 1.1 357
East North Central 67.0 9.0 11.1 11.5 1.4 442
West South Central 61.9 17.4 8.0 10.4 2.3 299
East South Central 50.0 16.5 14.8 16.5 2.2 182
New England 74.8 11.4 9.8 3.3 0.8 123
Middle Atlantic 57.3 10.8 12.0 16.2 3.7 241
South Atlantic 67.9 12.4 9.3 7.8 2.6 386



Table 4.3a: Rooming in at least 23 hours a day
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  What percent of healthy full-term infants room
with their mothers at least 23 hours a day
N
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more
All 44.9 17.3 7.0 30.8 2658
Type of facility
Birth center 5.8 0.0 0.0 94.2 121
Government hospital 44.3 14.6 6.3 34.8 526
Non-profit hospital 47.3 19.4 8.0 25.3 1679
Private hospital 49.5 18.7 6.2 25.6 305
Military hospital 25.9 0.0 0.0 74.1 27
Size of facility
0-249 37.8 12.8 5.8 43.6 624
250-499 47.5 16.7 6.4 29.5 438
500-999 44.9 17.8 9.2 28.1 544
1000-1999 49.4 19.5 7.5 23.5 544
2000-4999 46.1 21.0 5.9 26.9 438
5000 or more 48.6 17.1 7.1 27.1 70
Teaching hospital
Yes 50.3 18.1 11.3 20.3 177
No 46.5 18.1 7.0 28.3 2360
Birth center 5.8 0.0 0.0 94.2 121
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 89.7 3.4 3.4 3.4 29
Healthy newborn only 39.8 15.2 6.5 38.5 1098
Level 1 or 2 NICU 47.5 18.0 7.3 27.2 1059
Level 3 NICU 48.1 21.4 7.8 22.7 472
Census region
Pacific 15.9 9.7 7.7 66.8 352
Mountain 29.5 16.7 5.2 48.6 210
West North Central 54.0 20.4 7.7 17.9 363
East North Central 49.2 23.4 9.0 18.4 457
West South Central 47.9 14.2 3.9 34.0 309
East South Central 67.7 12.2 4.2 15.9 189
New England 37.8 19.7 16.5 26.0 127
Middle Atlantic 59.5 18.7 5.6 16.3 252
South Atlantic 45.1 17.8 6.0 31.1 399



Table 4.4a: Reasons for removing healthy full-term breastfed infants from mother's room
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  Pediatric rounds Change of shift Visiting hours Hearing test Heel stick Infant photos Infant's bath Mother bathing Mother out of
room
N
All 60.3 18.1 3.4 85.8 86.6 60.4 66.4 65.5 87.4 2690
Type of facility
Birth center 2.8 0.9 1.9 6.5 8.3 4.7 7.3 5.6 6.7 122
Government hospital 57.7 20.8 3.4 90.6 90.0 68.0 77.3 75.3 92.9 532
Non-profit hospital 62.3 16.4 3.1 89.6 89.7 62.5 65.4 66.5 90.6 1698
Private hospital 75.5 29.4 5.6 87.3 92.3 58.6 78.2 68.1 91.4 311
Military hospital 56.0 8.3 0.0 57.7 80.8 32.0 24.0 21.7 56.0 27
Size of facility
0-249 37.4 7.4 4.1 77.8 78.2 61.5 67.0 65.1 78.7 630
250-499 68.7 22.3 4.7 95.0 96.4 85.3 74.1 74.2 94.1 448
500-999 70.1 26.6 3.3 94.0 92.9 81.8 70.3 65.6 92.5 548
1000-1999 67.6 20.1 2.1 85.6 85.3 49.8 63.1 64.5 88.1 553
2000-4999 61.4 16.7 2.7 79.4 84.4 24.6 57.8 61.0 86.3 440
5000 or more 64.8 10.0 2.9 72.9 70.4 24.6 58.0 47.8 82.6 71
Teaching hospital
  Yes 69.9 15.6 4.7 83.4 85.7 32.5 56.0 63.2 90.3 182
No 62.3 19.0 3.3 89.6 90.3 65.1 70.0 68.5 90.9 2386
Birth center 2.8 0.9 1.9 6.5 8.3 4.7 7.3 5.6 6.7 122
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 44.4 37.5 0.0 100.0 87.5 71.4 75.0 62.5 100.0 29
Healthy newborn only 49.8 14.4 4.4 83.4 84.2 69.6 68.1 64.5 83.5 1109
Level 1 or 2 NICU 67.1 21.6 2.8 90.5 90.7 63.0 67.2 69.1 91.1 1075
Level 3 NICU 69.1 18.0 2.2 80.4 82.7 33.3 60.4 59.7 87.9 477
Census region
Pacific 28.2 5.2 2.2 64.7 69.1 44.2 46.2 47.9 71.9 354
Mountain 44.9 11.3 1.0 87.4 85.5 51.0 69.1 67.3 87.3 213
West North Central 62.6 13.9 5.4 91.6 91.1 63.5 71.3 81.5 95.8 369
East North Central 62.7 10.1 2.7 94.1 90.1 69.6 63.5 68.9 90.7 465
West South Central 73.0 37.3 3.8 83.2 87.2 60.3 80.3 67.0 86.9 311
East South Central 84.6 38.4 3.8 91.6 92.0 71.1 85.2 76.9 93.7 192
New England 35.8 2.5 2.5 94.4 86.3 49.6 41.9 51.6 86.1 128
Middle Atlantic 70.0 21.2 4.1 90.0 91.1 67.6 64.9 70.1 91.1 257
South Atlantic 71.1 23.9 3.8 81.8 88.1 59.5 69.6 55.7 84.6 401



Table 4.5a: Nighttime feedings for non-rooming-in infants
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  How many breastfeeding infants who do not room-in
are brought to the mother for breastfeeding at night
N
Few Some Many Most Not sure
All 3.6 5.1 16.9 71.5 2.9 2415
Type of facility
Birth center 21.3 0.0 0.0 61.7 17.0 47
Government hospital 3.5 5.7 12.5 76.4 1.8 488
Non-profit hospital 2.5 5.3 18.1 71.7 2.3 1576
Private hospital 5.0 4.3 21.6 65.6 3.5 282
Military hospital 22.7 4.5 4.5 45.5 22.7 22
Size of facility
0-249 4.2 2.0 6.3 84.7 2.8 504
250-499 1.7 2.9 12.7 81.8 1.0 417
500-999 3.6 4.7 16.6 73.3 1.8 506
1000-1999 3.9 6.8 23.4 62.2 3.7 516
2000-4999 3.2 8.2 25.2 58.4 5.0 404
5000 or more 10.3 14.7 25.0 45.6 4.4 68
Teaching hospital
  Yes 4.7 8.1 21.5 58.7 7.0 172
No 3.1 5.0 16.9 72.7 2.2 2196
Birth center 21.3 0.0 0.0 61.7 17.0 47
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 0.0 0.0 14.3 71.4 14.3 7
Healthy newborn only 4.6 3.1 10.9 78.6 2.9 943
Level 1 or 2 NICU 2.6 5.4 19.3 70.6 2.1 1011
Level 3 NICU 3.7 8.8 24.2 58.8 4.4 454
Census region
Pacific 10.8 5.4 13.5 63.3 6.9 259
Mountain 2.2 4.8 18.3 69.9 4.8 186
West North Central 1.1 2.3 7.4 88.3 0.9 351
East North Central 1.8 6.2 15.5 75.3 1.1 438
West South Central 3.2 7.1 23.1 61.6 5.0 281
East South Central 4.3 6.5 22.2 66.5 0.5 185
New England 2.6 0.9 9.6 86.0 0.9 114
Middle Atlantic 1.2 7.0 22.5 66.8 2.5 244
South Atlantic 5.3 4.5 20.7 66.1 3.4 357