CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2007

Table 3.1b: Documentation of infant feeding decisions
by state
  How often infant feeding decisions are documented
in medical records
N
Rarely Sometimes Often Almost always Not sure
All 0.3 0.1 1.0 98.5 0.1 2676
State
AK 0.0 0.0 0.0 95.8 4.2 24
AL 0.0 0.0 2.1 97.9 0.0 47
AR 3.7 0.0 0.0 96.3 0.0 27
AZ 0.0 0.0 2.8 97.2 0.0 36
CA 0.0 0.5 2.0 97.0 0.5 199
CO 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 42
CT 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 23
DC 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 4
DE 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 7
FL 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 95
GA 0.0 0.0 2.9 97.1 0.0 69
HI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 9
IA 0.0 1.4 1.4 97.3 0.0 74
ID 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 26
IL 0.0 0.0 0.9 99.1 0.0 109
IN 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 84
KS 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 68
KY 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 43
LA 0.0 0.0 2.3 97.7 0.0 44
MA 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 36
MD 3.4 0.0 0.0 96.6 0.0 29
ME 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 30
MI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 76
MN 1.2 0.0 1.2 97.6 0.0 85
MO 0.0 0.0 1.7 98.3 0.0 58
MS 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 37
MT 3.3 0.0 6.7 90.0 0.0 30
NC 0.0 0.0 1.4 98.6 0.0 70
ND 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 17
NE 2.1 0.0 2.1 95.7 0.0 47
NH 4.3 0.0 0.0 95.7 0.0 23
NJ 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 46
NM 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 20
NV 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 13
NY 0.0 0.0 0.9 99.1 0.0 109
OH 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 103
OK 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 49
OR 0.0 0.0 1.9 98.1 0.0 53
PA 0.0 0.0 1.0 99.0 0.0 101
PR 0.0 0.0 9.1 90.9 0.0 11
RI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 4
SC 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 36
SD 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 19
TN 0.0 0.0 0.0 98.4 1.6 64
TX 1.1 0.0 1.1 97.9 0.0 189
UT 0.0 0.0 3.2 96.8 0.0 31
VA 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 49
VT 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 11
WA 0.0 0.0 1.5 98.5 0.0 65
WI 0.0 0.0 1.1 98.9 0.0 93
WV 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 27
WY 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 15



Table 3.2b: Provision of advice & instructions for breastfeeding patients
by state
  How many breastfeeding patients are provided
advice & instructions about breastfeeding
N
Few Some Many Most Not sure
All 0.1 1.1 10.9 87.8 0.1 2662
State
AK 0.0 0.0 8.3 87.5 4.2 24
AL 0.0 4.3 10.9 84.8 0.0 46
AR 0.0 3.7 29.6 66.7 0.0 27
AZ 0.0 0.0 16.7 83.3 0.0 36
CA 0.0 3.0 13.6 83.3 0.0 198
CO 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 41
CT 0.0 0.0 4.5 95.5 0.0 22
DC 0.0 0.0 25.0 75.0 0.0 4
DE 0.0 0.0 14.3 85.7 0.0 7
FL 0.0 1.1 4.2 94.7 0.0 95
GA 0.0 0.0 12.9 87.1 0.0 70
HI 0.0 0.0 11.1 88.9 0.0 9
IA 0.0 0.0 8.1 91.9 0.0 74
ID 0.0 0.0 15.4 84.6 0.0 26
IL 0.0 1.8 10.1 88.1 0.0 109
IN 0.0 1.2 10.7 88.1 0.0 84
KS 0.0 3.0 13.4 83.6 0.0 67
KY 0.0 0.0 20.9 79.1 0.0 43
LA 0.0 2.3 15.9 81.8 0.0 44
MA 0.0 0.0 2.8 97.2 0.0 36
MD 0.0 0.0 20.7 79.3 0.0 29
ME 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 30
MI 0.0 0.0 6.8 93.2 0.0 74
MN 0.0 0.0 9.5 90.5 0.0 84
MO 0.0 0.0 8.6 91.4 0.0 58
MS 0.0 2.6 18.4 78.9 0.0 38
MT 0.0 3.3 10.0 86.7 0.0 30
NC 0.0 1.4 14.5 84.1 0.0 69
ND 0.0 0.0 5.9 94.1 0.0 17
NE 0.0 2.1 14.9 83.0 0.0 47
NH 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 22
NJ 2.2 0.0 8.7 89.1 0.0 46
NM 0.0 0.0 15.0 85.0 0.0 20
NV 0.0 0.0 7.7 92.3 0.0 13
NY 0.0 0.9 7.5 91.6 0.0 107
OH 0.0 0.0 12.9 87.1 0.0 101
OK 0.0 0.0 8.2 91.8 0.0 49
OR 0.0 0.0 7.5 92.5 0.0 53
PA 0.0 0.0 9.0 91.0 0.0 100
PR 0.0 9.1 9.1 81.8 0.0 11
RI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 5
SC 0.0 2.7 10.8 86.5 0.0 37
SD 0.0 5.3 15.8 78.9 0.0 19
TN 0.0 1.6 15.9 82.5 0.0 63
TX 0.5 1.6 14.4 83.5 0.0 188
UT 0.0 0.0 25.8 74.2 0.0 31
VA 0.0 2.1 14.6 83.3 0.0 48
VT 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 11
WA 0.0 0.0 6.2 93.8 0.0 65
WI 0.0 0.0 4.3 95.7 0.0 93
WV 0.0 0.0 3.7 92.6 3.7 27
WY 0.0 0.0 20.0 80.0 0.0 15



Table 3.3b: Education on infant cues to feed
by state
  How many patients are taught to recognize & respond
to infant cues rather than feeding on a set schedule
N
Few Some Many Most Not sure
All 0.3 3.0 19.3 77.0 0.4 2663
State
AK 0.0 0.0 25.0 75.0 0.0 24
AL 0.0 4.3 21.7 73.9 0.0 46
AR 0.0 7.4 22.2 70.4 0.0 27
AZ 0.0 5.6 13.9 80.6 0.0 36
CA 0.0 4.5 26.8 68.7 0.0 198
CO 0.0 7.3 17.1 75.6 0.0 41
CT 0.0 4.5 9.1 86.4 0.0 22
DC 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 4
DE 0.0 0.0 42.9 57.1 0.0 7
FL 0.0 1.1 7.4 91.6 0.0 95
GA 0.0 1.4 22.9 75.7 0.0 70
HI 0.0 0.0 22.2 77.8 0.0 9
IA 0.0 0.0 23.0 77.0 0.0 74
ID 0.0 0.0 38.5 61.5 0.0 26
IL 0.0 4.6 11.9 83.5 0.0 109
IN 0.0 1.2 19.0 78.6 1.2 84
KS 0.0 6.0 34.3 59.7 0.0 67
KY 2.3 0.0 23.3 74.4 0.0 43
LA 0.0 6.8 18.2 75.0 0.0 44
MA 0.0 0.0 8.3 91.7 0.0 36
MD 0.0 3.4 20.7 75.9 0.0 29
ME 0.0 0.0 10.0 90.0 0.0 30
MI 0.0 4.1 17.6 78.4 0.0 74
MN 0.0 7.1 11.9 81.0 0.0 84
MO 0.0 0.0 19.0 81.0 0.0 58
MS 0.0 7.9 23.7 68.4 0.0 38
MT 3.3 3.3 20.0 70.0 3.3 30
NC 0.0 1.4 18.8 78.3 1.4 69
ND 0.0 0.0 5.9 94.1 0.0 17
NE 0.0 4.3 23.4 72.3 0.0 47
NH 0.0 0.0 4.5 95.5 0.0 22
NJ 0.0 0.0 19.6 78.3 2.2 46
NM 0.0 0.0 35.0 60.0 5.0 20
NV 0.0 7.7 7.7 84.6 0.0 13
NY 0.0 1.9 15.9 81.3 0.9 107
OH 0.0 1.0 12.9 86.1 0.0 101
OK 0.0 6.1 24.5 69.4 0.0 49
OR 0.0 0.0 13.2 86.8 0.0 53
PA 0.0 4.0 16.8 77.2 2.0 101
PR 0.0 9.1 18.2 72.7 0.0 11
RI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 5
SC 2.7 5.4 21.6 70.3 0.0 37
SD 0.0 5.3 10.5 78.9 5.3 19
TN 0.0 3.2 17.5 79.4 0.0 63
TX 1.6 4.3 24.5 69.7 0.0 188
UT 0.0 0.0 51.6 45.2 3.2 31
VA 2.1 6.3 14.6 77.1 0.0 48
VT 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 11
WA 0.0 0.0 18.5 80.0 1.5 65
WI 0.0 1.1 15.1 83.9 0.0 93
WV 0.0 0.0 25.9 74.1 0.0 27
WY 0.0 6.7 26.7 66.7 0.0 15



Table 3.4b: Education on limitation to time suckling
by state
  How often are breastfeeding patients instructed to
limit suckling at the breast to a specific length of time
N
Rarely Sometimes Often Almost always Not sure
All 35.5 24.6 20.9 16.1 2.9 2651
State
AK 62.5 12.5 8.3 16.7 0.0 24
AL 21.7 19.6 37.0 21.7 0.0 46
AR 14.8 33.3 22.2 29.6 0.0 27
AZ 36.1 19.4 25.0 16.7 2.8 36
CA 34.2 22.6 24.6 14.1 4.5 199
CO 22.0 36.6 12.2 22.0 7.3 41
CT 66.7 19.0 9.5 4.8 0.0 21
DC 25.0 50.0 0.0 25.0 0.0 4
DE 0.0 71.4 0.0 14.3 14.3 7
FL 42.6 19.1 16.0 17.0 5.3 94
GA 30.4 20.3 24.6 23.2 1.4 69
HI 11.1 33.3 33.3 22.2 0.0 9
IA 32.4 24.3 24.3 18.9 0.0 74
ID 38.5 34.6 11.5 15.4 0.0 26
IL 30.6 27.8 22.2 15.7 3.7 108
IN 40.5 26.2 14.3 15.5 3.6 84
KS 32.8 19.4 28.4 17.9 1.5 67
KY 26.2 23.8 19.0 26.2 4.8 42
LA 25.0 31.8 31.8 11.4 0.0 44
MA 50.0 22.2 19.4 5.6 2.8 36
MD 39.3 17.9 32.1 7.1 3.6 28
ME 58.6 27.6 6.9 6.9 0.0 29
MI 40.5 25.7 17.6 12.2 4.1 74
MN 35.7 25.0 17.9 15.5 6.0 84
MO 36.2 17.2 31.0 10.3 5.2 58
MS 21.1 21.1 28.9 28.9 0.0 38
MT 30.0 26.7 23.3 20.0 0.0 30
NC 36.8 33.8 17.6 10.3 1.5 68
ND 35.3 23.5 23.5 11.8 5.9 17
NE 42.6 19.1 21.3 17.0 0.0 47
NH 72.7 18.2 4.5 4.5 0.0 22
NJ 45.7 23.9 13.0 17.4 0.0 46
NM 40.0 30.0 10.0 15.0 5.0 20
NV 7.7 15.4 53.8 15.4 7.7 13
NY 49.5 23.4 13.1 11.2 2.8 107
OH 42.4 26.3 17.2 11.1 3.0 99
OK 14.3 24.5 28.6 28.6 4.1 49
OR 43.4 30.2 9.4 11.3 5.7 53
PA 31.6 29.6 23.5 12.2 3.1 98
PR 18.2 9.1 18.2 45.5 9.1 11
RI 80.0 0.0 0.0 20.0 0.0 5
SC 35.1 24.3 16.2 24.3 0.0 37
SD 42.1 15.8 21.1 15.8 5.3 19
TN 27.0 15.9 22.2 33.3 1.6 63
TX 19.0 27.5 26.5 25.9 1.1 189
UT 25.8 22.6 35.5 9.7 6.5 31
VA 25.5 36.2 21.3 14.9 2.1 47
VT 63.6 18.2 9.1 0.0 9.1 11
WA 50.8 26.2 15.4 4.6 3.1 65
WI 54.8 22.6 15.1 4.3 3.2 93
WV 33.3 14.8 37.0 11.1 3.7 27
WY 26.7 40.0 6.7 20.0 6.7 15



Table 3.5b: Directly observed breastfeeding assessments
by state
  How many breastfeeding patients receive a
directly observed breastfeeding assessment
N
Few Some Many Most Not sure
All 0.2 2.9 14.6 82.1 0.2 2661
State
AK 0.0 0.0 12.5 87.5 0.0 24
AL 0.0 6.5 19.6 73.9 0.0 46
AR 0.0 11.1 22.2 66.7 0.0 27
AZ 0.0 0.0 11.1 88.9 0.0 36
CA 0.0 4.0 17.2 78.8 0.0 198
CO 2.4 0.0 17.1 80.5 0.0 41
CT 0.0 4.5 0.0 95.5 0.0 22
DC 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 4
DE 0.0 14.3 14.3 71.4 0.0 7
FL 0.0 2.1 4.2 93.7 0.0 95
GA 0.0 4.3 21.4 74.3 0.0 70
HI 0.0 0.0 11.1 88.9 0.0 9
IA 0.0 1.4 14.9 83.8 0.0 74
ID 0.0 0.0 11.5 88.5 0.0 26
IL 0.0 3.7 17.4 78.0 0.9 109
IN 0.0 1.2 6.0 92.9 0.0 84
KS 0.0 4.5 14.9 80.6 0.0 67
KY 2.3 0.0 18.6 79.1 0.0 43
LA 0.0 2.3 22.7 75.0 0.0 44
MA 0.0 2.8 2.8 94.4 0.0 36
MD 0.0 6.9 13.8 79.3 0.0 29
ME 0.0 0.0 6.7 93.3 0.0 30
MI 0.0 4.1 8.1 87.8 0.0 74
MN 1.2 2.4 14.5 81.9 0.0 83
MO 0.0 5.2 6.9 87.9 0.0 58
MS 0.0 5.3 21.1 73.7 0.0 38
MT 0.0 0.0 6.7 90.0 3.3 30
NC 0.0 5.8 11.6 82.6 0.0 69
ND 0.0 0.0 11.8 88.2 0.0 17
NE 0.0 8.5 25.5 66.0 0.0 47
NH 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 22
NJ 0.0 6.5 10.9 82.6 0.0 46
NM 0.0 5.0 10.0 85.0 0.0 20
NV 0.0 0.0 30.8 69.2 0.0 13
NY 0.0 3.7 15.9 79.4 0.9 107
OH 0.0 1.0 9.9 89.1 0.0 101
OK 0.0 0.0 22.4 75.5 2.0 49
OR 0.0 0.0 5.7 94.3 0.0 53
PA 0.0 3.0 15.8 81.2 0.0 101
PR 0.0 18.2 36.4 45.5 0.0 11
RI 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 5
SC 0.0 2.7 27.0 70.3 0.0 37
SD 0.0 0.0 15.8 84.2 0.0 19
TN 0.0 4.8 19.0 76.2 0.0 63
TX 1.6 2.1 20.2 76.1 0.0 188
UT 0.0 0.0 12.9 87.1 0.0 31
VA 0.0 4.3 17.0 78.7 0.0 47
VT 0.0 0.0 9.1 90.9 0.0 11
WA 0.0 0.0 13.8 86.2 0.0 65
WI 0.0 0.0 15.1 84.9 0.0 93
WV 0.0 0.0 18.5 81.5 0.0 27
WY 0.0 0.0 13.3 86.7 0.0 15



Table 3.6b: Use of a standardized breastfeeding assessment tool
by state
  Is breastfeeding assessed
using a standardized
or adapted assessment
tool
N
Yes No
All 56.8 43.2 2620
State
AK 26.1 73.9 23
AL 37.2 62.8 43
AR 25.9 74.1 27
AZ 61.1 38.9 36
CA 76.7 23.3 193
CO 68.3 31.7 41
CT 63.6 36.4 22
DC 100.0 0.0 4
DE 85.7 14.3 7
FL 64.9 35.1 94
GA 48.5 51.5 68
HI 44.4 55.6 9
IA 54.1 45.9 74
ID 65.4 34.6 26
IL 53.7 46.3 108
IN 58.3 41.7 84
KS 38.5 61.5 65
KY 48.8 51.2 43
LA 47.7 52.3 44
MA 67.6 32.4 34
MD 58.6 41.4 29
ME 60.0 40.0 30
MI 58.9 41.1 73
MN 69.1 30.9 81
MO 52.6 47.4 57
MS 26.3 73.7 38
MT 43.3 56.7 30
NC 58.2 41.8 67
ND 47.1 52.9 17
NE 34.0 66.0 47
NH 68.2 31.8 22
NJ 73.9 26.1 46
NM 40.0 60.0 20
NV 58.3 41.7 12
NY 58.3 41.7 103
OH 64.6 35.4 99
OK 40.8 59.2 49
OR 62.7 37.3 51
PA 63.0 37.0 100
PR 45.5 54.5 11
RI 100.0 0.0 5
SC 41.7 58.3 36
SD 57.9 42.1 19
TN 54.0 46.0 63
TX 43.8 56.2 185
UT 74.2 25.8 31
VA 51.1 48.9 45
VT 90.9 9.1 11
WA 67.2 32.8 64
WI 64.1 35.9 92
WV 40.7 59.3 27
WY 73.3 26.7 15



Table 3.7b: Provision of pacifiers
by state
  How many breastfed infants are given pacifiers
by facility staff
N
Few Some Many Most Not sure
All 25.3 29.8 33.5 10.6 0.8 2631
State
AK 58.3 20.8 16.7 4.2 0.0 24
AL 8.7 15.2 50.0 26.1 0.0 46
AR 14.8 22.2 37.0 25.9 0.0 27
AZ 14.7 38.2 35.3 8.8 2.9 34
CA 33.2 31.6 28.6 5.1 1.5 196
CO 22.5 22.5 40.0 15.0 0.0 40
CT 31.8 18.2 31.8 18.2 0.0 22
DC 50.0 25.0 25.0 0.0 0.0 4
DE 28.6 14.3 42.9 14.3 0.0 7
FL 36.6 21.5 30.1 9.7 2.2 93
GA 11.6 26.1 47.8 14.5 0.0 69
HI 22.2 22.2 55.6 0.0 0.0 9
IA 11.3 36.6 39.4 12.7 0.0 71
ID 40.0 36.0 16.0 8.0 0.0 25
IL 18.5 31.5 38.0 11.1 0.9 108
IN 13.4 34.1 47.6 3.7 1.2 82
KS 20.9 28.4 44.8 6.0 0.0 67
KY 25.6 23.3 37.2 14.0 0.0 43
LA 13.6 31.8 31.8 22.7 0.0 44
MA 34.3 25.7 31.4 5.7 2.9 35
MD 27.6 24.1 34.5 13.8 0.0 29
ME 69.0 17.2 10.3 0.0 3.4 29
MI 18.1 31.9 33.3 13.9 2.8 72
MN 22.0 37.8 30.5 8.5 1.2 82
MO 10.7 39.3 39.3 10.7 0.0 56
MS 13.2 31.6 34.2 21.1 0.0 38
MT 31.0 31.0 34.5 3.4 0.0 29
NC 24.3 37.1 25.7 12.9 0.0 70
ND 25.0 31.3 37.5 6.3 0.0 16
NE 15.2 50.0 21.7 13.0 0.0 46
NH 59.1 31.8 9.1 0.0 0.0 22
NJ 19.6 30.4 41.3 8.7 0.0 46
NM 50.0 35.0 15.0 0.0 0.0 20
NV 15.4 23.1 46.2 15.4 0.0 13
NY 41.9 28.6 22.9 4.8 1.9 105
OH 27.3 31.3 30.3 10.1 1.0 99
OK 29.2 18.8 37.5 12.5 2.1 48
OR 41.5 34.0 22.6 1.9 0.0 53
PA 16.0 33.0 32.0 17.0 2.0 100
PR 72.7 9.1 9.1 9.1 0.0 11
RI 40.0 40.0 20.0 0.0 0.0 5
SC 16.7 25.0 44.4 13.9 0.0 36
SD 0.0 57.9 36.8 5.3 0.0 19
TN 14.1 21.9 43.8 18.8 1.6 64
TX 26.1 21.3 34.0 18.6 0.0 188
UT 6.5 22.6 58.1 12.9 0.0 31
VA 23.4 34.0 31.9 10.6 0.0 47
VT 63.6 36.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 11
WA 36.9 41.5 18.5 1.5 1.5 65
WI 31.2 32.3 32.3 3.2 1.1 93
WV 18.5 18.5 51.9 11.1 0.0 27
WY 6.7 40.0 46.7 6.7 0.0 15