CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2007

Table 3.1a: Documentation of infant feeding decisions
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  How often infant feeding decisions are documented
in medical records
N
Rarely Sometimes Often Almost always Not sure
All 0.3 0.1 1.0 98.5 0.1 2679
Type of facility
Birth center 3.3 0.0 1.7 94.2 0.8 120
Government hospital 0.4 0.0 0.9 98.7 0.0 530
Non-profit hospital 0.1 0.1 0.9 98.8 0.1 1692
Private hospital 0.0 0.0 1.0 99.0 0.0 310
Military hospital 0.0 3.7 3.7 92.6 0.0 27
Size of facility
0-249 0.8 0.0 1.6 97.4 0.2 627
250-499 0.2 0.2 0.9 98.7 0.0 445
500-999 0.4 0.0 0.5 99.1 0.0 548
1000-1999 0.0 0.2 0.5 99.1 0.2 552
2000-4999 0.0 0.0 1.1 98.6 0.2 437
5000 or more 0.0 0.0 1.4 98.6 0.0 70
Teaching hospital
  Yes 0.0 0.0 0.6 99.4 0.0 179
No 0.2 0.1 1.0 98.7 0.1 2380
Birth center 3.3 0.0 1.7 94.2 0.8 120
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 0.0 0.0 0.0 95.8 4.2 24
Healthy newborn only 0.5 0.1 1.4 97.8 0.1 1106
Level 1 or 2 NICU 0.2 0.1 0.7 99.1 0.0 1074
Level 3 NICU 0.0 0.0 0.6 99.2 0.2 475
Census region
Pacific 0.0 0.3 1.7 97.4 0.6 352
Mountain 0.5 0.0 1.9 97.7 0.0 213
West North Central 0.5 0.3 1.1 98.1 0.0 368
East North Central 0.0 0.0 0.4 99.6 0.0 465
West South Central 1.0 0.0 1.0 98.1 0.0 309
East South Central 0.0 0.0 0.5 99.0 0.5 191
New England 0.8 0.0 0.0 99.2 0.0 127
Middle Atlantic 0.0 0.0 0.8 99.2 0.0 256
South Atlantic 0.3 0.0 1.0 98.7 0.0 398



Table 3.2a: Provision of advice & instructions for breastfeeding patients
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  How many breastfeeding patients are provided
advice & instructions about breastfeeding
N
Few Some Many Most Not sure
All 0.1 1.1 11.0 87.8 0.1 2665
Type of facility
Birth center 0.0 0.0 6.6 93.4 0.0 122
Government hospital 0.2 1.1 15.9 82.8 0.0 529
Non-profit hospital 0.1 1.0 10.3 88.6 0.1 1680
Private hospital 0.0 2.3 7.8 89.6 0.3 308
Military hospital 0.0 0.0 11.5 88.5 0.0 26
Size of facility
0-249 0.2 1.9 11.0 86.7 0.2 625
250-499 0.0 0.2 11.3 88.2 0.2 441
500-999 0.0 0.6 11.2 88.2 0.0 543
1000-1999 0.2 1.1 9.6 89.1 0.0 552
2000-4999 0.0 1.6 11.1 87.3 0.0 433
5000 or more 0.0 0.0 15.5 84.5 0.0 71
Teaching hospital
  Yes 0.0 0.6 11.7 87.7 0.0 179
No 0.1 1.2 11.1 87.5 0.1 2364
Birth center 0.0 0.0 6.6 93.4 0.0 122
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 14
Healthy newborn only 0.1 1.6 12.0 86.2 0.1 1104
Level 1 or 2 NICU 0.1 0.8 10.1 88.9 0.1 1071
Level 3 NICU 0.0 0.4 10.9 88.7 0.0 476
Census region
Pacific 0.0 1.7 11.1 86.9 0.3 351
Mountain 0.0 0.5 13.2 86.3 0.0 212
West North Central 0.0 1.1 10.7 88.3 0.0 366
East North Central 0.0 0.7 9.1 90.2 0.0 461
West South Central 0.3 1.6 14.9 83.1 0.0 308
East South Central 0.0 2.1 16.3 81.6 0.0 190
New England 0.0 0.0 1.6 98.4 0.0 126
Middle Atlantic 0.4 0.4 8.3 90.9 0.0 253
South Atlantic 0.0 1.3 11.1 87.4 0.3 398



Table 3.3a: Education on infant cues to feed
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  How many patients are taught to recognize & respond
to infant cues rather than feeding on a set schedule
N
Few Some Many Most Not sure
All 0.3 3.0 19.3 77.0 0.4 2666
Type of facility
Birth center 0.0 1.6 6.6 91.8 0.0 122
Government hospital 0.2 4.0 25.0 70.5 0.4 529
Non-profit hospital 0.2 2.7 18.2 78.4 0.5 1681
Private hospital 1.0 3.6 20.1 75.0 0.3 308
Military hospital 0.0 3.8 23.1 73.1 0.0 26
Size of facility
0-249 0.3 3.8 20.0 75.4 0.5 625
250-499 0.0 2.5 21.0 76.2 0.2 442
500-999 0.4 2.9 20.3 76.1 0.4 543
1000-1999 0.0 3.6 15.6 80.3 0.5 552
2000-4999 0.5 2.1 18.0 79.2 0.2 433
5000 or more 1.4 1.4 31.0 64.8 1.4 71
Teaching hospital
  Yes 0.6 1.7 18.4 77.7 1.7 179
No 0.3 3.2 20.0 76.2 0.3 2365
Birth center 0.0 1.6 6.6 91.8 0.0 122
Level of Neonatal Care 0.0 7.1 14.3 78.6 0.0 14
Unknown
Healthy newborn only 0.3 3.7 19.5 76.0 0.5 1105
Level 1 or 2 NICU 0.1 3.0 20.0 76.6 0.3 1070
Level 3 NICU 0.6 1.5 17.4 80.1 0.4 477
Census region
Pacific 0.0 2.6 23.1 74.1 0.3 351
Mountain 0.5 3.8 26.4 67.9 1.4 212
West North Central 0.0 3.6 20.5 75.7 0.3 366
East North Central 0.0 2.4 15.0 82.4 0.2 461
West South Central 1.0 5.2 23.4 70.5 0.0 308
East South Central 0.5 3.7 21.1 74.7 0.0 190
New England 0.0 0.8 7.1 92.1 0.0 126
Middle Atlantic 0.0 2.4 16.9 79.1 1.6 254
South Atlantic 0.5 2.5 17.3 79.4 0.3 398



Table 3.4a: Education on limitation to time suckling
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  How often are breastfeeding patients instructed to
limit suckling at the breast to a specific length of time
N
Rarely Sometimes Often Almost always Not sure
All 35.5 24.6 20.9 16.1 2.9 2654
Type of facility
Birth center 65.5 12.6 3.4 15.1 3.4 119
Government hospital 27.2 22.9 22.9 24.0 3.0 525
Non-profit hospital 38.4 25.8 20.1 12.8 2.9 1676
Private hospital 23.1 26.3 26.6 21.4 2.6 308
Military hospital 23.1 19.2 42.3 11.5 3.8 26
Size of facility
0-249 33.8 19.5 21.6 22.1 3.1 621
250-499 31.6 24.3 24.1 18.2 1.8 440
500-999 37.1 27.1 18.6 14.0 3.1 542
1000-1999 36.9 26.5 20.6 13.0 3.1 548
2000-4999 37.7 25.7 20.1 13.2 3.2 432
5000 or more 38.0 31.0 18.3 9.9 2.8 71
Teaching hospital
  Yes 46.4 19.6 18.4 12.3 3.4 179
No 33.1 25.6 21.9 16.5 2.8 2356
Birth center 65.5 12.6 3.4 15.1 3.4 119
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 35.7 7.1 28.6 21.4 7.1 14
Healthy newborn only 34.3 22.0 21.4 19.5 2.8 1097
Level 1 or 2 NICU 35.2 27.3 21.0 14.1 2.3 1068
Level 3 NICU 38.9 25.1 19.2 12.6 4.2 475
Census region
Pacific 39.8 23.9 19.9 12.5 4.0 352
Mountain 29.2 28.3 21.2 17.0 4.2 212
West North Central 35.8 21.3 24.0 15.8 3.0 366
East North Central 41.5 25.8 17.5 11.8 3.5 458
West South Central 18.8 28.2 27.2 24.6 1.3 309
East South Central 24.3 19.6 26.5 28.0 1.6 189
New England 61.3 21.0 10.5 5.6 1.6 124
Middle Atlantic 41.8 25.9 17.1 12.7 2.4 251
South Atlantic 34.1 24.9 20.6 17.3 3.1 393



Table 3.5a: Directly observed breastfeeding assessments
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  How many breastfeeding patients receive a
directly observed breastfeeding assessment
N
Few Some Many Most Not sure
All 0.2 2.9 14.7 82.1 0.2 2664
Type of facility
Birth center 0.0 0.8 2.5 96.7 0.0 120
Government hospital 0.6 3.2 16.6 79.4 0.2 529
Non-profit hospital 0.1 2.7 14.7 82.3 0.2 1682
Private hospital 0.7 3.3 15.3 80.8 0.0 307
Military hospital 0.0 7.7 23.1 69.2 0.0 26
Size of facility
0-249 0.2 2.2 13.0 84.5 0.2 624
250-499 0.2 1.6 14.1 84.1 0.0 440
500-999 0.4 3.3 15.5 80.7 0.2 543
1000-1999 0.0 4.3 12.7 82.6 0.4 552
2000-4999 0.2 2.5 18.2 79.0 0.0 434
5000 or more 1.4 2.8 21.1 74.6 0.0 71
Teaching hospital
  Yes 0.6 1.7 21.2 76.0 0.6 179
No 0.2 3.0 14.8 81.8 0.1 2365
Birth center 0.0 0.8 2.5 96.7 0.0 120
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 0.0 0.0 21.4 78.6 0.0 14
Healthy newborn only 0.1 2.9 13.5 83.4 0.1 1103
Level 1 or 2 NICU 0.3 3.3 14.4 81.9 0.2 1070
Level 3 NICU 0.4 1.9 17.8 79.7 0.2 477
Census region
Pacific 0.0 2.3 14.5 83.2 0.0 351
Mountain 0.5 0.5 13.2 85.4 0.5 212
West North Central 0.3 3.6 14.8 81.4 0.0 365
East North Central 0.0 2.0 11.7 86.1 0.2 461
West South Central 1.0 2.6 21.1 75.0 0.3 308
East South Central 0.5 4.2 19.5 75.8 0.0 190
New England 0.0 1.6 3.2 95.2 0.0 126
Middle Atlantic 0.0 3.9 15.0 80.7 0.4 254
South Atlantic 0.0 4.3 15.1 80.6 0.0 397



Table 3.6a: Use of a standardized breastfeeding assessment tool
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  Is breastfeeding assessed
using a standardized
or adapted assessment
tool
N
Yes No
All 56.7 43.3 2623
Type of facility
Birth center 26.7 73.3 116
Government hospital 46.7 53.3 518
Non-profit hospital 62.2 37.8 1658
Private hospital 55.4 44.6 305
Military hospital 53.8 46.2 26
Size of facility
0-249 35.6 64.4 613
250-499 49.3 50.7 432
500-999 58.9 41.1 540
1000-1999 68.8 31.2 542
2000-4999 73.9 26.1 426
5000 or more 72.9 27.1 70
Teaching hospital
  Yes 67.4 32.6 175
No 57.4 42.6 2332
Birth center 26.7 73.3 116
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 71.4 28.6 14
Healthy newborn only 44.6 55.4 1085
Level 1 or 2 NICU 62.0 38.0 1054
Level 3 NICU 72.6 27.4 470
Census region
Pacific 68.1 31.9 342
Mountain 61.1 38.9 211
West North Central 51.7 48.3 360
East North Central 59.9 40.1 456
West South Central 42.3 57.7 305
East South Central 43.3 56.7 187
New England 68.5 31.5 124
Middle Atlantic 63.1 36.9 249
South Atlantic 55.3 44.7 389



Table 3.7a: Provision of pacifiers
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  How many breastfed infants are given pacifiers
by facility staff
N
Few Some Many Most Not sure
All 25.3 29.8 33.4 10.6 0.8 2634
Type of facility
Birth center 91.6 5.0 1.7 0.8 0.8 119
Government hospital 21.4 29.0 32.8 15.8 1.0 524
Non-profit hospital 23.4 31.8 34.6 9.3 0.8 1661
Private hospital 13.5 30.9 41.8 13.2 0.7 304
Military hospital 61.5 19.2 19.2 0.0 0.0 26
Size of facility
0-249 36.6 28.8 24.3 9.8 0.5 614
250-499 20.1 26.7 40.7 12.2 0.2 442
500-999 18.7 29.9 38.4 11.8 1.1 541
1000-1999 22.3 31.9 33.3 11.6 0.9 543
2000-4999 26.0 31.9 33.6 7.3 1.2 423
5000 or more 29.6 28.2 29.6 9.9 2.8 71
Teaching hospital
  Yes 26.9 30.3 29.1 11.4 2.3 175
No 21.8 31.0 35.4 11.0 0.7 2340
Birth center 91.6 5.0 1.7 0.8 0.8 119
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 9.1 18.2 63.6 9.1 0.0 11
Healthy newborn only 31.5 27.7 28.8 11.2 0.7 1092
Level 1 or 2 NICU 18.5 31.4 38.2 11.0 0.8 1059
Level 3 NICU 26.7 31.4 32.6 8.3 1.1 472
Census region
Pacific 37.0 32.7 25.5 3.7 1.1 349
Mountain 23.2 30.4 36.7 9.2 0.5 207
West North Central 16.0 38.4 35.9 9.5 0.3 357
East North Central 22.0 32.2 36.1 8.4 1.3 454
West South Central 23.8 22.5 34.5 18.9 0.3 307
East South Central 15.2 22.5 41.9 19.9 0.5 191
New England 49.2 25.0 19.4 4.8 1.6 124
Middle Atlantic 27.5 30.7 29.9 10.4 1.6 251
South Atlantic 25.6 26.6 35.3 11.9 0.5 394