CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2007

Table 1.1b: Skin-to-skin contact among vaginal births
by state
  How many patients experience mother-infant skin-to-skin contact for
at least 30 minutes within 1 hour of uncomplicated vaginal birth
N
Few Some Many Most Not sure
All 13.1 20.7 24.8 40.4 1.0 2676
State
AK 4.2 4.2 12.5 79.2 0.0 24
AL 25.5 21.3 27.7 21.3 4.3 47
AR 25.9 25.9 11.1 37.0 0.0 27
AZ 5.6 33.3 27.8 30.6 2.8 36
CA 4.5 14.1 28.6 51.8 1.0 199
CO 4.8 31.0 23.8 40.5 0.0 42
CT 4.3 8.7 21.7 65.2 0.0 23
DC 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 4
DE 28.6 28.6 14.3 28.6 0.0 7
FL 7.4 10.5 30.5 51.6 0.0 95
GA 12.9 37.1 24.3 25.7 0.0 70
HI 0.0 11.1 11.1 77.8 0.0 9
IA 24.3 25.7 20.3 29.7 0.0 74
ID 23.1 11.5 15.4 46.2 3.8 26
IL 20.2 30.3 20.2 27.5 1.8 109
IN 17.9 25.0 10.7 46.4 0.0 84
KS 14.7 25.0 20.6 39.7 0.0 68
KY 11.6 34.9 32.6 18.6 2.3 43
LA 18.2 29.5 9.1 40.9 2.3 44
MA 2.8 16.7 30.6 50.0 0.0 36
MD 13.8 17.2 31.0 34.5 3.4 29
ME 6.9 3.4 34.5 51.7 3.4 29
MI 14.5 14.5 31.6 39.5 0.0 76
MN 9.4 23.5 29.4 37.6 0.0 85
MO 17.2 15.5 17.2 50.0 0.0 58
MS 28.9 23.7 23.7 23.7 0.0 38
MT 13.3 6.7 36.7 43.3 0.0 30
NC 15.7 30.0 21.4 32.9 0.0 70
ND 29.4 29.4 0.0 41.2 0.0 17
NE 21.3 25.5 17.0 36.2 0.0 47
NH 0.0 0.0 26.1 73.9 0.0 23
NJ 11.1 24.4 28.9 28.9 6.7 45
NM 10.0 35.0 20.0 25.0 10.0 20
NV 7.7 15.4 38.5 30.8 7.7 13
NY 10.1 12.8 27.5 46.8 2.8 109
OH 15.5 10.7 39.8 33.0 1.0 103
OK 14.3 18.4 34.7 32.7 0.0 49
OR 7.5 17.0 13.2 62.3 0.0 53
PA 10.0 23.0 30.0 36.0 1.0 100
PR 9.1 18.2 27.3 45.5 0.0 11
RI 0.0 25.0 0.0 75.0 0.0 4
SC 21.6 29.7 24.3 24.3 0.0 37
SD 21.1 26.3 21.1 31.6 0.0 19
TN 25.4 25.4 19.0 28.6 1.6 63
TX 16.8 24.2 23.7 34.7 0.5 190
UT 9.7 22.6 22.6 45.2 0.0 31
VA 18.4 18.4 20.4 40.8 2.0 49
VT 0.0 0.0 9.1 90.9 0.0 11
WA 1.5 13.8 27.7 56.9 0.0 65
WI 5.4 23.7 28.0 43.0 0.0 93
WV 11.1 18.5 25.9 44.4 0.0 27
WY 0.0 0.0 40.0 60.0 0.0 15



Table 1.2b: Skin-to-skin contact among Cesarean births
by state
  How many patients experience mother-infant skin-to-skin contact
for at least 30 minutes within 2 hours of uncomplicated Cesarean birth
N
Few Some Many Most Not sure
All 29.1 22.3 19.0 29.4 0.3 2510
State
AK 14.3 28.6 14.3 42.9 0.0 14
AL 43.5 23.9 8.7 21.7 2.2 46
AR 40.7 37.0 7.4 14.8 0.0 27
AZ 21.2 39.4 12.1 27.3 0.0 33
CA 20.7 18.6 23.4 37.2 0.0 188
CO 17.9 25.6 25.6 30.8 0.0 39
CT 15.0 15.0 15.0 55.0 0.0 20
DC 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 3
DE 33.3 0.0 50.0 16.7 0.0 6
FL 27.8 17.7 20.3 34.2 0.0 79
GA 34.3 31.3 19.4 14.9 0.0 67
HI 0.0 12.5 25.0 62.5 0.0 8
IA 39.2 25.7 18.9 16.2 0.0 74
ID 25.0 12.5 20.8 41.7 0.0 24
IL 39.4 27.5 11.9 20.2 0.9 109
IN 35.8 18.5 11.1 34.6 0.0 81
KS 32.3 27.4 16.1 24.2 0.0 62
KY 25.6 27.9 27.9 18.6 0.0 43
LA 38.6 25.0 9.1 27.3 0.0 44
MA 17.1 14.3 22.9 45.7 0.0 35
MD 44.4 18.5 14.8 22.2 0.0 27
ME 13.8 20.7 20.7 44.8 0.0 29
MI 21.1 25.4 21.1 32.4 0.0 71
MN 22.0 26.8 18.3 31.7 1.2 82
MO 20.7 22.4 22.4 34.5 0.0 58
MS 44.7 21.1 15.8 18.4 0.0 38
MT 18.5 22.2 18.5 40.7 0.0 27
NC 38.2 23.5 13.2 25.0 0.0 68
ND 31.3 18.8 18.8 31.3 0.0 16
NE 28.9 13.3 13.3 44.4 0.0 45
NH 5.0 20.0 15.0 60.0 0.0 20
NJ 37.8 26.7 13.3 20.0 2.2 45
NM 31.3 37.5 18.8 12.5 0.0 16
NV 30.8 15.4 23.1 30.8 0.0 13
NY 29.4 21.6 11.8 36.3 1.0 102
OH 29.3 21.2 24.2 23.2 2.0 99
OK 20.4 14.3 30.6 34.7 0.0 49
OR 10.4 20.8 20.8 47.9 0.0 48
PA 37.9 26.3 22.1 13.7 0.0 95
PR 70.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 0.0 10
RI 20.0 0.0 40.0 40.0 0.0 5
SC 51.4 11.4 20.0 17.1 0.0 35
SD 50.0 5.6 27.8 16.7 0.0 18
TN 37.3 18.6 15.3 28.8 0.0 59
TX 37.4 21.5 19.6 21.5 0.0 163
UT 7.1 25.0 21.4 46.4 0.0 28
VA 42.2 17.8 11.1 28.9 0.0 45
VT 9.1 0.0 27.3 63.6 0.0 11
WA 10.7 25.0 23.2 41.1 0.0 56
WI 14.6 28.1 30.3 27.0 0.0 89
WV 38.5 23.1 11.5 26.9 0.0 26
WY 0.0 13.3 46.7 40.0 0.0 15
Note: Birth centers are not included in these tabulations.




Table 1.3b: Early breastfeeding initiation among vaginal births
by state
  What percent of healthy breastfed infants are put to the breast
within 1 hour of uncomplicated vaginal birth
N
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more
All 4.1 15.6 36.9 43.5 2578
State
AK 4.3 8.7 34.8 52.2 23
AL 7.0 18.6 37.2 37.2 43
AR 14.8 11.1 37.0 37.0 27
AZ 5.9 11.8 50.0 32.4 34
CA 5.3 17.6 35.1 42.0 188
CO 2.4 12.2 34.1 51.2 41
CT 4.5 0.0 31.8 63.6 22
DC 0.0 0.0 25.0 75.0 4
DE 28.6 28.6 14.3 28.6 7
FL 4.3 13.8 31.9 50.0 94
GA 5.9 26.5 41.2 26.5 68
HI 0.0 12.5 37.5 50.0 8
IA 4.2 18.3 50.7 26.8 71
ID 0.0 16.0 24.0 60.0 25
IL 9.4 15.1 40.6 34.9 106
IN 2.4 10.8 37.3 49.4 83
KS 3.2 14.5 38.7 43.5 62
KY 0.0 23.8 47.6 28.6 42
LA 10.0 32.5 40.0 17.5 40
MA 2.8 5.6 27.8 63.9 36
MD 0.0 17.2 58.6 24.1 29
ME 0.0 0.0 17.2 82.8 29
MI 1.4 13.7 43.8 41.1 73
MN 3.7 13.6 43.2 39.5 81
MO 7.0 15.8 36.8 40.4 57
MS 13.9 22.2 38.9 25.0 36
MT 0.0 13.8 31.0 55.2 29
NC 2.9 13.2 39.7 44.1 68
ND 0.0 6.3 62.5 31.3 16
NE 4.5 9.1 31.8 54.5 44
NH 0.0 0.0 39.1 60.9 23
NJ 2.3 34.1 36.4 27.3 44
NM 0.0 22.2 27.8 50.0 18
NV 0.0 30.8 46.2 23.1 13
NY 2.8 19.6 27.1 50.5 107
OH 2.1 21.6 34.0 42.3 97
OK 4.1 16.3 53.1 26.5 49
OR 0.0 4.0 32.0 64.0 50
PA 3.1 15.3 35.7 45.9 98
PR 14.3 28.6 14.3 42.9 7
RI 0.0 0.0 60.0 40.0 5
SC 5.4 27.0 32.4 35.1 37
SD 0.0 15.8 31.6 52.6 19
TN 4.8 16.1 33.9 45.2 62
TX 7.9 19.1 40.4 32.6 178
UT 0.0 3.3 23.3 73.3 30
VA 0.0 28.6 30.6 40.8 49
VT 0.0 0.0 9.1 90.9 11
WA 3.1 1.6 39.1 56.3 64
WI 1.1 7.6 28.3 63.0 92
WV 0.0 16.0 44.0 40.0 25
WY 0.0 0.0 28.6 71.4 14



Table 1.4b: Early breastfeeding initiation among Cesarean births
by state
  What percent of healthy breastfed infants are put to the breast
within 2 hours of uncomplicated Cesarean birth
N
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more
All 12.5 19.5 31.5 36.5 2316
State
AK 0.0 14.3 50.0 35.7 14
AL 22.5 25.0 15.0 37.5 40
AR 19.2 30.8 34.6 15.4 26
AZ 6.3 15.6 56.3 21.9 32
CA 16.7 28.2 29.3 25.9 174
CO 8.1 16.2 32.4 43.2 37
CT 5.3 21.1 21.1 52.6 19
DC 0.0 0.0 66.7 33.3 3
DE 0.0 80.0 20.0 0.0 5
FL 13.6 18.2 36.4 31.8 66
GA 26.7 21.7 30.0 21.7 60
HI 12.5 12.5 25.0 50.0 8
IA 12.7 14.1 40.8 32.4 71
ID 8.3 4.2 20.8 66.7 24
IL 17.3 19.4 31.6 31.6 98
IN 5.2 10.4 42.9 41.6 77
KS 12.5 14.3 32.1 41.1 56
KY 15.0 30.0 22.5 32.5 40
LA 17.5 40.0 20.0 22.5 40
MA 0.0 17.6 32.4 50.0 34
MD 16.7 16.7 50.0 16.7 24
ME 0.0 7.7 26.9 65.4 26
MI 2.9 11.4 48.6 37.1 70
MN 7.6 15.2 30.4 46.8 79
MO 3.7 20.4 31.5 44.4 54
MS 22.9 28.6 20.0 28.6 35
MT 14.8 22.2 22.2 40.7 27
NC 13.6 22.0 30.5 33.9 59
ND 0.0 0.0 40.0 60.0 15
NE 0.0 11.4 43.2 45.5 44
NH 5.0 20.0 15.0 60.0 20
NJ 22.5 27.5 37.5 12.5 40
NM 41.7 25.0 0.0 33.3 12
NV 7.7 53.8 30.8 7.7 13
NY 21.1 16.8 24.2 37.9 95
OH 5.3 16.8 32.6 45.3 95
OK 8.5 23.4 42.6 25.5 47
OR 0.0 2.2 26.1 71.7 46
PA 17.4 22.1 34.9 25.6 86
PR 75.0 0.0 25.0 0.0 4
RI 0.0 25.0 50.0 25.0 4
SC 25.8 22.6 19.4 32.3 31
SD 5.6 22.2 22.2 50.0 18
TN 19.6 14.3 26.8 39.3 56
TX 22.1 27.2 32.4 18.4 136
UT 7.7 7.7 38.5 46.2 26
VA 15.0 35.0 27.5 22.5 40
VT 0.0 0.0 50.0 50.0 10
WA 1.8 12.5 23.2 62.5 56
WI 3.4 13.5 25.8 57.3 89
WV 20.0 30.0 25.0 25.0 20
WY 0.0 0.0 33.3 66.7 15
Note: Birth centers are not included in these tabulations.




Table 1.5b: Performance of routine procedures while skin-to-skin
by state
  How often are routine infant procedures performed
while mother & infant are skin-to-skin
N
Rarely Sometimes Often Almost always Not sure
All 33.9 27.9 20.7 16.5 0.9 2667
State
AK 12.5 12.5 8.3 66.7 0.0 24
AL 53.2 23.4 17.0 4.3 2.1 47
AR 63.0 25.9 11.1 0.0 0.0 27
AZ 22.2 41.7 30.6 5.6 0.0 36
CA 23.2 25.3 27.3 23.7 0.5 198
CO 19.0 33.3 26.2 19.0 2.4 42
CT 27.3 18.2 40.9 13.6 0.0 22
DC 25.0 0.0 25.0 50.0 0.0 4
DE 42.9 14.3 14.3 28.6 0.0 7
FL 31.9 23.4 21.3 22.3 1.1 94
GA 37.7 36.2 20.3 4.3 1.4 69
HI 11.1 11.1 44.4 33.3 0.0 9
IA 40.5 35.1 14.9 9.5 0.0 74
ID 32.0 12.0 20.0 32.0 4.0 25
IL 49.5 27.5 16.5 5.5 0.9 109
IN 38.6 21.7 20.5 16.9 2.4 83
KS 30.9 36.8 17.6 14.7 0.0 68
KY 34.9 27.9 25.6 9.3 2.3 43
LA 54.5 34.1 11.4 0.0 0.0 44
MA 20.0 25.7 22.9 31.4 0.0 35
MD 34.5 31.0 6.9 24.1 3.4 29
ME 10.3 24.1 24.1 37.9 3.4 29
MI 25.0 32.9 21.1 21.1 0.0 76
MN 21.4 41.7 20.2 16.7 0.0 84
MO 27.6 34.5 25.9 10.3 1.7 58
MS 52.6 39.5 7.9 0.0 0.0 38
MT 26.7 26.7 23.3 20.0 3.3 30
NC 32.9 35.7 18.6 12.9 0.0 70
ND 56.3 6.3 25.0 12.5 0.0 16
NE 44.7 25.5 19.1 6.4 4.3 47
NH 4.3 13.0 39.1 43.5 0.0 23
NJ 40.0 33.3 20.0 4.4 2.2 45
NM 25.0 25.0 35.0 15.0 0.0 20
NV 46.2 15.4 38.5 0.0 0.0 13
NY 32.1 26.6 23.9 15.6 1.8 109
OH 34.0 24.3 26.2 14.6 1.0 103
OK 40.8 36.7 14.3 8.2 0.0 49
OR 22.6 17.0 20.8 39.6 0.0 53
PA 39.0 28.0 24.0 8.0 1.0 100
PR 54.5 18.2 0.0 18.2 9.1 11
RI 50.0 50.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4
SC 54.1 18.9 13.5 10.8 2.7 37
SD 36.8 21.1 26.3 15.8 0.0 19
TN 41.3 34.9 9.5 14.3 0.0 63
TX 46.3 22.6 14.2 16.3 0.5 190
UT 38.7 32.3 6.5 19.4 3.2 31
VA 42.9 22.4 14.3 20.4 0.0 49
VT 0.0 18.2 27.3 54.5 0.0 11
WA 12.3 16.9 33.8 36.9 0.0 65
WI 19.4 33.3 28.0 19.4 0.0 93
WV 33.3 44.4 11.1 11.1 0.0 27
WY 20.0 40.0 26.7 13.3 0.0 15