CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC)–2007

Table 1.1a: Skin-to-skin contact among vaginal births
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
 

How many patients experience mother-infant skin-to-skin contact
for at least 30 minutes within 1 hour of uncomplicated vaginal birth

N
Few Some Many Most Not sure
All 13.1 20.6 24.9 40.4 1.0 2679
Type of facility
Birth center 0.8 1.7 1.7 95.9 0.0 121
Government hospital 15.8 23.4 26.6 33.3 0.9 531
Non-profit hospital 12.8 20.8 25.1 40.1 1.1 1690
Private hospital 15.5 21.3 29.7 32.9 0.6 310
Military hospital 3.7 33.3 22.2 40.7 0.0 27
Size of facility
0-249 15.8 16.2 19.6 48.1 0.3 628
250-499 13.9 23.1 24.9 37.7 0.4 446
500-999 10.8 24.1 25.4 39.4 0.4 548
1000-1999 14.7 20.7 27.4 36.2 1.1 552
2000-4999 9.7 19.3 27.4 41.1 2.5 435
5000 or more 11.4 25.7 32.9 25.7 4.3 70
Teaching hospital
  Yes 7.9 20.9 27.1 39.0 5.1 177
No 14.1 21.6 25.9 37.7 0.7 2381
Birth center 0.8 1.7 1.7 95.9 0.0 121
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 8.3 12.5 41.7 37.5 0.0 24
Healthy newborn only 14.4 17.3 23.8 44.0 0.4 1108
Level 1 or 2 NICU 13.3 25.0 24.3 36.6 0.7 1073
Level 3 NICU 9.7 19.0 27.6 40.7 3.0 474
Census region
Pacific 4.3 13.6 24.7 56.8 0.6 352
Mountain 9.4 21.6 26.8 39.9 2.3 213
West North Central 17.7 23.6 20.7 38.0 0.0 368
East North Central 14.8 21.1 26.2 37.2 0.6 465
West South Central 17.4 24.2 22.3 35.5 0.6 310
East South Central 23.0 26.2 25.1 23.6 2.1 191
New England 3.2 7.9 26.2 61.9 0.8 126
Middle Atlantic 10.2 18.9 28.7 39.4 2.8 254
South Atlantic 13.5 22.8 25.3 38.0 0.5 400




Table 1.2a: Skin-to-skin contact among Cesarean births
by hospital type, size, NICU level, and region
 

How many patients experience mother-infant skin-to-skin contact
for at least 30 minutes within 2 hours of uncomplicated Cesarean birth

N
Few Some Many Most Not sure
All 29.1 22.3 19.0 29.3 0.3 2512
Type of facility
Government hospital 31.1 26.1 16.2 25.9 0.6 517
Non-profit hospital 28.0 20.9 19.8 31.0 0.2 1666
Private hospital 33.0 22.4 18.8 25.7 0.0 303
Military hospital 15.4 30.8 23.1 30.8 0.0 26
Size of facility
0-249 30.2 19.4 18.8 31.5 0.2 496
250-499 28.5 21.8 20.0 29.2 0.5 431
500-999 27.5 23.4 20.4 28.8 0.0 539
1000-1999 28.7 26.0 17.0 28.0 0.4 547
2000-4999 30.1 20.1 18.5 30.8 0.5 428
5000 or more 33.8 22.5 22.5 21.1 0.0 71
Teaching hospital
  Yes 29.1 20.7 19.6 29.6 1.1 179
No 29.1 22.4 18.9 29.3 0.2 2333
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 20.0 33.3 13.3 33.3 0.0 15
Healthy newborn only 29.2 20.7 19.6 30.2 0.3 967
Level 1 or 2 NICU 29.2 23.7 18.9 28.0 0.2 1057
Level 3 NICU 29.0 22.2 18.0 30.4 0.4 473
Census region
Pacific 16.8 20.3 22.5 40.3 0.0 315
Mountain 18.5 25.1 22.1 34.4 0.0 195
West North Central 29.9 22.8 18.6 28.5 0.3 355
East North Central 28.7 24.3 19.6 26.7 0.7 449
West South Central 35.0 22.3 18.7 24.0 0.0 283
East South Central 37.6 22.6 16.7 22.6 0.5 186
New England 13.3 15.0 20.8 50.8 0.0 120
Middle Atlantic 34.3 24.4 16.1 24.4 0.8 242
South Atlantic 37.9 20.4 16.6 25.1 0.0 367
Note: Birth centers are not included in these tabulations.




Table 1.3a: Early breastfeeding initiation among vaginal births
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  What percent of healthy breastfed infants are put to the
breast within 1 hour of uncomplicated vaginal birth
N
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more
All 4.1 15.6 36.8 43.5 2580
Type of facility
Birth center 1.7 0.0 5.9 92.4 119
Government hospital 6.4 15.7 39.2 38.6 502
Non-profit hospital 3.5 15.6 36.9 44.0 1640
Private hospital 4.4 21.2 43.3 31.1 293
Military hospital 0.0 23.1 53.8 23.1 26
Size of facility
0-249 3.5 11.5 29.6 55.4 601
250-499 3.5 12.6 37.1 46.9 429
500-999 4.2 13.6 40.5 41.7 528
1000-1999 3.8 18.9 38.8 38.4 528
2000-4999 5.4 21.2 37.9 35.5 425
5000 or more 5.8 26.1 47.8 20.3 69
Teaching hospital
  Yes 2.9 23.6 36.2 37.4 174
No 4.3 15.8 38.5 41.4 2287
Birth center 1.7 0.0 5.9 92.4 119
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 4.3 17.4 43.5 34.8 23
Healthy newborn only 4.2 13.0 32.6 50.2 1068
Level 1 or 2 NICU 3.5 16.7 39.9 39.9 1028
Level 3 NICU 5.0 19.1 39.5 36.4 461
Census region
Pacific 3.9 11.7 35.3 49.1 334
Mountain 1.5 12.7 33.3 52.5 204
West North Central 4.0 14.3 41.7 40.0 350
East North Central 3.5 14.0 36.6 45.9 451
West South Central 8.2 19.7 42.2 29.9 294
East South Central 6.0 19.7 38.8 35.5 183
New England 1.6 1.6 27.8 69.0 126
Middle Atlantic 2.8 20.5 32.1 44.6 249
South Atlantic 3.9 20.1 36.8 39.3 389



Table 1.4a: Early breastfeeding initiation among Cesarean births
by hospital type, size, NICU level, and region
  What percent of healthy breastfed infants are put to the
breast within 2 hours of uncomplicated Cesarean birth
N
<10% 10-49% 50-89% 90% or more
All 12.6 19.5 31.5 36.5 2318
Type of facility
Government hospital 15.4 19.8 28.3 36.5 474
Non-profit hospital 10.8 18.2 32.3 38.7 1549
Private hospital 17.8 25.2 33.3 23.7 270
Military hospital 12.0 28.0 24.0 36.0 25
Size of facility
0-249 10.0 14.3 28.3 47.4 460
250-499 9.8 19.3 32.6 38.3 399
500-999 10.2 17.0 34.1 38.7 499
1000-1999 15.9 19.5 31.9 32.7 498
2000-4999 15.5 26.5 31.0 27.0 400
5000 or more 24.2 32.3 27.4 16.1 62
Teaching hospital
  Yes 17.2 30.2 24.9 27.8 169
No 12.2 18.6 32.0 37.1 2149
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 21.4 14.3 28.6 35.7 14
Healthy newborn only 11.4 16.7 30.0 41.8 892
Level 1 or 2 NICU 12.1 18.7 33.3 35.9 974
Level 3 NICU 15.8 26.9 30.6 26.7 438
Census region
Pacific 10.7 20.1 28.4 40.8 299
Mountain 10.2 16.1 32.3 41.4 186
West North Central 7.4 14.8 34.7 43.0 337
East North Central 7.2 14.7 35.4 42.7 429
West South Central 18.5 28.9 32.5 20.1 249
East South Central 19.9 23.4 21.6 35.1 171
New England 1.8 15.0 28.3 54.9 113
Middle Atlantic 19.9 20.8 30.8 28.5 221
South Atlantic 18.8 23.3 31.3 26.5 313
Note: Birth centers are not included in these tabulations.




Table 1.5a: Performance of routine procedures while skin-to-skin
by facility type, size, NICU level, and region
  How often are routine infant procedures performed
while mother & infant are skin-to-skin
N
Rarely Sometimes Often Almost always Not sure
All 33.9 27.9 20.7 16.6 0.9 2670
Type of facility
Birth center 3.3 0.0 4.9 91.0 0.8 122
Government hospital 38.6 29.2 19.7 11.6 0.9 528
Non-profit hospital 33.1 29.7 22.1 14.2 0.8 1685
Private hospital 41.6 28.2 20.5 8.1 1.6 308
Military hospital 37.0 18.5 25.9 18.5 0.0 27
Size of facility
0-249 32.0 21.0 18.3 28.0 0.6 628
250-499 35.8 27.5 20.9 15.3 0.5 444
500-999 32.1 33.0 20.0 14.7 0.4 546
1000-1999 36.1 27.7 23.7 11.1 1.3 548
2000-4999 33.9 30.6 21.9 11.5 2.1 434
5000 or more 34.3 38.6 15.7 10.0 1.4 70
Teaching hospital
  Yes 32.6 31.4 20.0 10.9 5.1 175
No 35.5 29.1 21.6 13.1 0.6 2373
Birth center 3.3 0.0 4.9 91.0 0.8 122
Level of Neonatal Care
Unknown 29.2 33.3 33.3 4.2 0.0 24
Healthy newborn only 33.2 25.1 18.8 22.3 0.5 1106
Level 1 or 2 NICU 36.1 28.9 21.7 12.5 0.7 1069
Level 3 NICU 30.6 32.1 22.3 12.7 2.3 471
Census region
Pacific 19.9 21.4 26.5 31.9 0.3 351
Mountain 27.4 29.7 24.5 16.5 1.9 212
West North Central 33.3 33.6 19.9 12.3 0.8 366
East North Central 34.1 27.8 22.4 14.9 0.9 464
West South Central 48.1 26.8 13.5 11.3 0.3 310
East South Central 45.0 31.4 14.7 7.9 1.0 191
New England 15.3 21.8 29.0 33.1 0.8 124
Middle Atlantic 36.2 28.3 23.2 10.6 1.6 254
South Atlantic 37.7 28.6 16.6 15.8 1.3 398