Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content
CDC Home

Biomonitoring Summary

2,5-Dimethylfuran

CAS No. 625-86-5

General Information

2,5-Dimethylfuran is a volatile chemical found in tobacco smoke (Baggett et al., 1974) and in roasted coffee aroma (Wang et al., 1983). Exposure among the general population may occur through inhaling cigarette smoke and coffee aroma. 2,5-Dimethylfuran in blood and exhaled air has been used to determine smoking status (Ashley et al., 1996; Gordon et al., 2002; Perbellini et al., 2003). In addition, levels of 2,5-dimethylfuran found in blood provide a rough estimate of the number of cigarettes smoked per day (Ashley et al., 1995, 1996). After a person smokes cigarettes, 2,5-dimethylfuran is absorbed from the respiratory tract and then rapidly eliminated from the blood (Egle and Gochberg, 1979; Gordon et al., 2002). 2,5 Dimethylfuran is also a human urinary metabolite of n-hexane. Workers exposed to n-hexane will eliminate 2,5-dimethylfuran, along with other metabolites, in their urine (ATSDR, 1999; Iwata et al., 1983; Mutti et al., 1984; Perbellini et al., 1981).

Human health effects from 2,5-dimethylfuran at low environmental doses or at biomonitored levels from low environmental exposures are unknown. Neither IARC or NTP has evaluated 2,5-dimethylfuran's human carcinogenicity. 2,5-Dimethylfuran is not mutagenic by in vitro testing (Zeiger et al., 1992).

Biomonitoring Information

Levels of 2,5-dimethylfuran in blood reflect recent exposure and are generally undetectable among nonsmoking adults and in the general population (CDC, 2012). Ashley et al. (1995) and Perbellini et al. (2003) reported median blood 2,5-dimethylfuran levels of 0.13 ?g/L in smokers which were similar values to the 95th percentile in participants of NHANES 2003-2004 and reflected the U.S. population mix of nonsmokers and smokers. Levels of 2,5-dimethylfuran in blood increase generally with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (Ashley et al., 1995, 1996).

Finding a measurable amount of 2,5-dimethylfuran in blood does not imply that the level of 2,5-dimethylfuran causes an adverse health effect. Biomonitoring studies of 2,5-dimethylfuran in blood can provide physicians and public health officials with reference values so that they can determine whether people have been exposed to higher levels of 2,5-dimethylfuran than are found in the general population. Biomonitoring data can also help scientists plan and conduct research on exposure and health effects.

References

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological profile for n-hexane. 1999 [online]. Available at URL: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp.asp?id=393&tid=68. 10/15/12

Ashley DL, Bonin MA, Hamar B, McGeehin MA. Removing the smoking confounder from blood volatile organic compounds measurements. Environ Res 1995;71(1):39-45.

Ashley DL, Bonin MA, Hamar B, McGeehin M. Using the blood concentration of 2,5-dimethylfuran as a marker for smoking. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1996;68(3):183-187.

Baggett MS, Morie GP, Simmons MW, Lewis JS. Quantitative determination of semivolatile compounds in cigarette smoke. J Chromatogr 1974;97(1):79-82.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Updated Tables, 2012. [online] Available at URL: http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/. 10/1512

Egle JL Jr, Gochberg BJ. Retention of inhaled 2-methylfuran and 2,5-dimethylfuran. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1979;40(10):866-869.

Gordon SM, Wallace LA, Brinkman MC, Callahan PJ, Kenny DV. Volatile organic compounds as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking. Environ Health Perspect 2002;110(7):689-98.

Iwata M, Takeuchi Y, Hisanaga N, Ono Y. A study on biological monitoring of n-hexane exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1983;51(3):253-60.

Mutti A, Falzoi M, Lucertini S, Arfini G, Zignani M, Lombardi S, Franchini I. n-Hexane metabolism in occupationally exposed workers. Br J Ind Med 1984;41(4):533-8.

Perbellini L, Brugnone F, Faggionato G. Urinary excretion of the metabolites of n-hexane and its isomers during occupational exposure. Br J Ind Med 1981;38:20-26.

Perbellini L, Princivalle A, Cerpelloni M, Pasini F, Brugnone f. Comparison of breath, blood and urine concentrations in the biomonitoring of environmental exposure to 1,3-butadiene, 2,5-dimethylfuran, and benzene. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2003;76:461-466.

Wang TH, Shanfield, Zlatkis A. Analysis of trace volatile organic compounds in coffee by headspace concentration and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chromatographia 1983;17:411-417.

Zeiger E, Anderson B, Haworth S, Lawlor T, Mortelmans K. Salmonella mutagenicity tests: V. Results from the testing of 311 chemicals. Environ Mol Mutagen 1992;19 supp. 21:2-141.


 
USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30329-4027, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO
A-Z Index
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #