Section 1: Overview
Where are United States ART clinics located, how many ART cycles did they perform in 2008, and how many infants were born from these ART cycles?
Although ART clinics are located throughout the United States, generally in or near major cities, the greatest number of clinics is in the eastern United States. Figure 1 shows the locations of the 436 reporting clinics. The fertility clinic section of this report, arranged in alphabetical order by state, city, and clinic name, provides specific information on each of these clinics. The number of clinics, cycles performed, live-birth deliveries, and infants born as a result of ART all have increased steadily since CDC began collecting this information in 1995 (see Section 5). Because in some cases more than one infant is born during a live-birth delivery (e.g., twins), the total number of infants born is greater than the number of live-birth deliveries. CDC estimates that ART accounts for slightly more than 1% of total U.S. births.
|Number of ART clinics in the United States in 2008||475|
|Number of ART clinics that submitted data in 2008||436|
|Number of ART cycles reported in 2008||148,055*|
|Number of live-birth deliveries resulting from ART cycles started in 2008||46,326|
|Number of infants born as a result of ART cycles performed in 2008||61,426|
|* This number does not include 2 cycles in which a new treatment procedure was being evaluated (see Figure 2).|
Figure 2 shows the types of ART cycles performed in the United States in 2008. For approximately 71% of ART cycles performed in 2008, fresh nondonor eggs or embryos were used. ART cycles that used frozen nondonor embryos were the next most common type, accounting for approximately 17% of the total. In about 12% of cycles, eggs or embryos were donated by another woman. A very small number of cycles (less than 0.1%) involved the evaluation of a new treatment procedure. Cycles in which a new treatment procedure was being evaluated are not included in the total number of cycles reported in the national report or in the individual fertility clinic tables. Thus, data presented in subsequent figures in this report and in the individual fertility clinic tables are based on 148,055 ART cycles.
Figure 3 presents ART cycles performed in the United States in 2008 according to the age of the woman who had the procedure. The average age of women using ART services in 2008 was 36. The largest group of women using ART services were women younger than 35, representing approximately 39% of all ART cycles performed in 2008. Approximately 21% of ART cycles were performed among women aged 35–37, 20% among women aged 38–40, 10% among women aged 41–42, 6% among women aged 43–44, and 5% among women older than 44.
How did the types of ART cycles performed in the United States in 2008 differ among women of different ages?
Figure 4 shows that, in 2008, the type of ART cycles varied by the woman’s age. The vast majority (96%) of women younger than 35 used their own eggs, whereas about 3% used donor eggs. In contrast, 38% of women aged 43–44 and 71% of women older than 44 used donor eggs. Across all age groups, more ART cycles using fresh eggs or embryos were performed than cycles using frozen embryos.
How is clinic size related to percentages of ART cycles performed in the United States in 2008 that resulted in live births?
The number of ART procedures performed every year varies among fertility clinics in the United States. For Figure 5, clinics were divided equally into four groups (called quartiles) based on the size of the clinic as determined by the number of ART cycles it performed in 2008. The percentage for each quartile by type of ART represents the average percentage of ART cycles that resulted in live births for clinics in that quartile.
In 2008, percentages of ART cycles that resulted in live births using fresh nondonor eggs or embryos were similar for all 436 clinics regardless of the number of cycles performed. However, for frozen nondonor and fresh donor cycles, the percentage of cycles that resulted in live births increased as the clinic size increased. Among frozen donor cycles, the percentage of cycles that resulted in live births varied by clinic size.